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Question:

Duscuss about a Essay of  the Data communications networking devices for operation, utilization, and LAN and WAN internetworking?

 

Answer:

Introduction:

Networking is used to connectivity between hardware systems. The report is a design document to implement network setup using intranet services. It would start from internetworking with devices. It leads to switching demonstration and its example with configuration. The other discussion would be on network security plan for given situation; VLAN concept with how attacks are done. The major discussion would be on Ethernet switching and its different layers to be built upon. The application is of above topics in industry and also demonstration of network design. WLAN switching architecture is discussed in detail also there would be description of wireless monitoring. The report would be starting from switching concept.

Lan switching:

Internetworking & Devices

Inter-networking is defined as connectivity in between hardware devices. Networking devices are those hardware devices that used for information technology infrastructure. These devices can be routers, gateways, switches, bridges etc. Networking devices are connected with different topologies. Routers are the important devices for making better intranet network and LAN connectivity as well. Internetworking is implemented by using different protocols such as TCP/IP that is used for transferring reliable data. A network can be designed to connect various devices and to make WLAN or LAN. Internetworking is used for reliable, fast data transfer and there is OSI model layers for communication purpose. Communication over network is done through different layers of OSI model. There are several benefits of using internetworking because on network the biggest issues are with reliable data transfer. Two types of data transfer techniques are used for this purpose like UDP and TCP/IP. Transport layer and data link layer are two important layers that work on data security and transportation.

Switching

Switching concept is used to send data packet from sender to destination. Switching is done using various techniques. The diagram below is about how so many PC’s are connected through switch.

Switching

A single switch can connect different type of devices like printer, modem, server, PC’s etc. It can be implemented using different techniques.There is one popular switching technique that is packet switching. Layer 2 switching is used for hardware base environment and provides wire speed, hardware based bridging. Media access control is used for layer 2 switching. Layer 3 and layer 3 are used with advanced level technology. Layer 4 switching is also based on hardware but uses protocols like HTT, FTP etc. Layer 2 is most reliable switching technique in network security. Layer 3 is destination based technique because destination address is saved and then packet is delivered accordingly. Switching is applied to send information from one place to another over internet.

 

Switch Configuration

There are different modes of manual switch that applied on hub topology. We would be discussing about some of the mode and how to configure switch according to requirement. There is diagram attached here as example and Basic switch configuration includes password setting, duplex mode etc.

  MODE

PURPOSE

COMMAND

User EXEC

Allow user to connect with remote devices

Default mode

Privileged EXEC

Allow user to set operating parameters

Use enable command from exec mode

Global Configuration

Commands containing entire system

Use configure command

Interface Configuration

Commands to modify interface

User interface number

VLAN Configuration

Create new VLAN

Use vlan id for configure

Table 1: Different modes of switch

 Different modes of switch

Switching configuration is done to connect different PC’s and making various VLAN with in system. Half duplex is used to send data from sender to destination only but no back reply can be sent. Virtual LAN concept is used to manage switches sometimes and for privacy as well. There is need to make new VLAN before configuring LAN.

Commands for configuration range

Awplus (Config) #interface port number

Command for speed configuration

Awplus (Config-if) #speed

Set duplex mode

Awplus (Config-if) #duplex full

Awplus (Config-if) #duplex half

Assign IP Address

Awplus (Config-if) #interface vlan1

Awplus (Config-if) #IP address 192.168.1.1/24

Switching security :

Network Security

Network security is important issue while using internetworking setup. There are different approaches used to maintain security over internet services. First of all network setup need to implement security plan according to company or organization. Network security is essential because sometimes unauthorized person can breach security and use it for against organization. Organization should apply some important steps like disable unused ports; secure other ports, device security as well. Monitoring is done to track such kind of issues and different types of monitoring techniques are applied. OOS monitoring is used for long run and to check stepwise marking while remote monitoring is applied for specific cases. The major benefit of monitoring is that at the same time we can follow up the raised issues. Monitoring makes networking security more reliable. There is TCP/IP protocol can be accessed by anyone and it should be monitored. There are majorly two types of attacks passive and active. Active attacks are those attacks in which attacker makes changes in information and that can be seen by user as well. Authentication is the best way to check security issues and password security can be applied for this purpose. The next topic would be give idea about different types of attacks and its protocol.

 

Types of VLAN Attacks

Virtual local area network is made to provide privacy to user and increasing internet speed as well. It can be applied according to need of organization. VLAN is provided for separating two different department talks and it is maintained according to need. Virtual area network can be attacked by different techniques some of them would be discussed here. The important aspect of security is of VLAN because it is applied on Data Link layer.

Address resolution protocol (ARP) is used for layer 3 IP address allocation. Attacker can be done by changing this address. Someone can provide different MAC address to destination location and packet would be sent on wrong destination.

MAC Flooding is one of the popular attacks that encountered in VLAN case. It can be understood as many of MAC address come to one port. It confuses protocol that actually what packet is to be sent on which address.

Dynamic host control protocol (DHCP) is used to provide IP address dynamically. But attacker provides a fake IP address using gateway.

Spanning tree attack is when some try to change the value of topology root. Root of topology can be changed by using this kind of attacks.

Data is sent using frame of many bits and there is brute force attack that allows many frames on network so that memory could be leaked.

Random Frame Stress Attacks:

Random frame attacks are that when more than one message is being untouched from sender and destination as well. If this kind of situation occur for many messages than problems become more complicated.

Random Frame Stress Attacks

As it can be seen by diagram that how single message is being sent to different destination and actually no one is receiving. It is a kind of brute force attack because it is applied with stress and randomness makes it more difficult to be resolved. These types of attacks are done to know about source address so that input and design of switch could be changed. The solution to avoid these attacks is to introduce private VLAN. That will separate address of source and destination as well. Prevention techniques are applied for stopping attacks and provide security.

Attacks can be active and passive and their prevention must be done for security purpose. Sometimes malicious information may send to another user and spoofing can breach privacy of organization as well. The next discussion is one Ethernet and its design network. That would cover the whole scenario of switching network design and industrial application.

Ethernet switching & network design:

Ethernet Switching:

Ethernet is switching technique that use for connectivity in LAN. It is applied using straight wired connectivity among IT infrastructure and PC’s. There is requirement of reliable data transfer between machines in VLAN. Ethernet provides this transfer with authentication from one PC to another in LAN. Ethernet is used for reliability a d secure data transfer with in VLAN. Ethernet is a local area network that transmits signal in ‘zero’ and ‘ones’ forms. These symbols are used to send data from one station to another station. Ethernet is operated by coaxial cable and twisted pair.

 OSI Model

Fig: OSI Model

Ethernet technology is work in way that destinations are assigned with unique address called MAC address. The above diagram is of OSI model and explains how message is sent from one station physical layer to receiving station. Ethernet is local area network setup in which devices are connected through cable. The model is communication model that provides communication between application layers of two different stations.

64 bits

48 bits

48 bits

16 bits

368 to 12000 bits

32 bits

Preamble

Destination

Address

Source

Address

Type of

Length

data

Frame check

sequence


Ethernet Frame

It can be seen from above frame set that how bits are divided and what would be the data bits length. A single frame is sent from one sender to destination. Carrier sense multiple access (CDMA/CD) collision detection is used for sending data. This technique is used while more than two frames are collided at same time. Routers are the devices that used for sending packet frames ahead in route. The further discussion is on difference between layers. Ethernet can be implemented using various topologies like star, hub and other. IEEE 802.3 standard defines Ethernet also.

Difference between Layer 2 and Layer 3:

Layer 2 and layer 3 switching are used for different switching methods. Layer 2 does switching from one port to destination port using MAC address. It maintains MAC address table as well for this particular task. Layer 3 also does same switching but using IP address that is why it provides reliable transfer. The reason of reliability is that IP addresses are unique for port. Layer 2 and layer 3 both are based on OSI communication model. Layer 2 switches by Ethernet and layer 3 switches using routers. The layer 2 switching based on hardware devices that are basic switching technique. MAC table based routing is about MAC address. The MAC addresses along with their ports so that it can be maintained. There are terms like if switch works as bridge called layer 2 while if switch works like router is called layer 3. IP address based switching provides unique address so that packet frame would be sent on destination correctly. Layer 3 switching uses routers and forwards frame to next port near to destination. It is sent through wire speed. There is multilayer switching as well that provides scalability to support different devices. The major benefit is of these technique that support in network management as well. Enhancement in available devices, routing efficiency also that is more beneficial.

 

Industrial Application of Ethernet:

Ethernet switching is used nowadays in different applications and for network security. Communication is done over RS232 or RS485 physical layer. Industrial Ethernet is a concept that used for marketing and increases flexibility. It is also provides different ways to build distributed system using optic fiber. Ethernet provides power so that one single cable can be used for video, audio transfer also. Ethernet industrial is used for difficult situation for switching. Traditional techniques was limited to single cable for particular task only but using present technology can be done with more flexibility. Power of Ethernet is to allow distributed system. Fast forward redundancy is used for building communication medium so that after cable broken even that data can be transferred. The recent example of this technology is building automation market. Ethernet or TCP/IP can be applied by less cost and used at industrial benefits. Wireless network can be integrated using network Access points as well.

Ethernet Switch Network Design:

The Ethernet switches work as hub or switch so that different devices can be connected through wired connection. The design of network is done by using various devices and some of them are listed here as:

 Network design

Fig: Network design

The above diagram is self-explanatory that how using Ethernet switch that can be used as hub. There are different devices like computers, printers connected with internet connection as well. The further discussion would be on wireless LAN switching and its working.

Wirelass Lan Switching:

The above discussed topics are on wired technology and how switching is done using the. But now we would know about wireless switching. The technology is based on electromagnetic waves so that no need of wire would be there. This would give clear idea radio waves used for transmission.

Wireless Switching Working:

Wireless switching is done without wired connection and used for ad-hoc network where infrastructure is not required. International engineering standard of electrical and electronics (IEEE) is standard for all electronic implementation and technology. IEEE 802.11 is one of the standards given for wireless network setup. 802.11 standards specifies in air connectivity between client and base station. IP address plays important role while using wireless techniques. There are many amendments done in 802.11 and some of them are explained briefly here

802.11a: It is one of the specifications of WLAN that provides 54 Mbps in 5Ghz band. It uses frequency multiplexing.

802.11b: This extension is applies LAN and provides 11 Mbps speed.

802.11e: This extension is support for LAN Quality of Services in wireless network.

Basic service set is rules and support for Ad-hoc network. Ad-hoc wireless network is based on infrastructure less connections. WLAN works with MAC address and BSS is the base station which is based on its LAN ports.  

WLAN Switching Architecture:

WLAN switching architecture is for sending signal from one station to another. The diagram below will clear idea of working architecture of wireless network.

 WLAN Architecture

Fig: WLAN Architecture

Base station is connects different access points together and create local area network. As shown above these are two WLAN part (a) and part (b). Both networks works separately and can communicate with each other if they are from same base station. A switching center is assigned for each base station so that monitoring can be done of all. DS stands for distribution center that net manages all BSS in the network area. Medium access layer provides different services like transmission, frame check etc. 802.11b is architecture that works as Ethernet based and provides authenticated services. The next topic would be on wireless traffic.

Wireless Traffic:

Traffic stands for frame coming across network and at same time flow of messages over network. The above wired techniques are more reliable when it comes to secure data transfer but wireless services provide speed and scalability. This is the reason that wireless techniques are more popular nowadays. Data traffic is defined as devices coming across network and here we are considering Ad-hoc network specifications. The number of framed over single line would be tell us idea of total traffic over network. The speed of frame sending from source to destination depends upon the MAC address because in wireless network there is no facility of cable so that frame would reach to right destination. This is the problem with WLAN because sometimes packets are misplaced and send to wrong destination.

 

Wireless Management & Monitoring:

The above discussed topics so far have clear the idea of wired LAN and wireless LAN and about its architecture. The main issues come in implementing WLAN is that how to manage stations and packet transfer between source and destination. It leads to require a management over WLAN and with this concept of monitoring comes in notice. Monitoring can be defined as keeping track of frames till it reached at perfect destination. The frames should be divided according to range of network over it is to be sent. Enabling of monitoring in networking system would give efficient system to be developed and managed as well. It is important to keep track of base stations list also so that it can be notify that which frame is attached to which stations. It is all about internetworking and its implementation methods with examples where necessary. Further we would be summarizing the discussion and concluding it for a while. WLAN is more efficient and faster than wired but less reliable.

Conclusion:

Internetworking is essential while we are dealing with internet communication and sending data over network. So far we have discussed about its definition, working and implementation techniques as well. The discussion was started from switching and its implementation techniques. We have covered all concepts related to local area network implementation and different working technologies nowadays. First we have cleared concept of wired LAN in detail and after that its architecture. The wireless network has been discussed so far to indicate difference between both approaches. This would give one idea of implementing wireless specification and how it can be managed as well. We have covered all aspects using diagram and detailed description about each. The proposed report is about networking concept and implementing different technologies to network design.

 

References:

Held.G(2007) Data communications networking devices: operation, utilization, and LAN and WAN internetworking, Wiley [Accessed on 10 July, 2015].

Stamatios.V (2003) DWDM: Networks, Devices, and Technology, Wiley [Accessed on 10 July, 2015].

Ginanasivam.P (2007)  Telecommunication Switching and Networks, New Age International.

Hung.Q et.ol (2013) Switching Networks: Recent Advances, Springer Science & Business Media, Vol 5 pp[28].

(2003) Introduction to Ethernet Switching, System Configuration online available at

https://www.snt.co.uk/courseware/Configuring_switches.pdf [Accessed on 10 July, 2015].

Henry.V (2011) VLAN Support in Linux, Linux Journal   https://www.linuxjournal.com/article/10821

Tongsin.H (2006) Journal of Communications and Networks Vol 8, AIEI Korean Institute of Communication Sciences (KICS) [Accessed on 10 July, 2015].

Spurgen.C (2000) Ethernet: The Definitive Guide, O'Reilly Media, Inc [Accessed on 10 July, 2015].

Norman.B (2011) Implementation of IBM j-type Ethernet Switches and Routers, IBM Redbooks

Farrell.M (2009) Virtual Local Area Network-Good Practice Guideline Viewed from

https://systems.hscic.gov.uk/infogov/security/infrasec/gpg/vlan.pdf

Hucbay.D (2003) Switch Operation of CCNP ciscopress.com

Decker.M (1997) Security of Networks, Kent Encyclopedia of Telecommunications vol 15,pp 231-255 Accessed on 10 July, 2015].

Wong.A et.ol (2009) Network Infrastructure Security, Springer

Kizza.J (2009) Guide to Computer Network Security, Springer Science & Business Media

Thomas.J (2014) Industrial Network Security: Securing Critical Infrastructure Networks for Smart Grid, SCADA, and Other Industrial Control Systems, Syngress

Al-balushi.M et.ol (2012) Performance Evaluation using STP Across Layer2 VLAN, International Journal of Communication and Networking System Volume: 01

Mistrik.I et.ol(2014) Relating System Quality and Software Architecture, Morgan Kaufmann.

Vossen.G (2008) Working Papers A Literature Overview on Strategic Information Systems Planning

IEEE 802.11 Standard specification [Accessed on 10 July, 2015] at

https://www.cse.unt.edu/~rakl/class3510/CHAP14.pdf

Flickenger.R (2003) Building Wireless Community Networks, O'Reilly Media, Inc [Accessed on 10 July, 2015]

Understanding Switches and Routers vol 3, issue1 [Accessed on 10 July, 2015] at

https://www.ccontrols.com/pdf/Essentials0411.pdf

Switch Configuration [Accessed on 10 July, 2015] at

https://www.snt.co.uk/courseware/Configuring_switches.pdf

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