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New York Smoke Free Regulation Add in library

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Question:

Write an essay on New York Smoke Free Regulation?

 

Answer:

A collection of airborne that can be solid or liquid or gases emitted when it undergoes combustion together. New York City proposes smoke free regulation to ban the smoke. The compounds of smokes are highly toxic and irritating also. It contains variety chemical that can harm human body.

This article determines that smoke free regulation is not putting in any effect on employment and sales in hospital industry. This article examined trends in the sales and employment in per capita level. The smoke free regulation act increases in taxable sales on drink and food instead of damaging employment and sales in hospital industry (Best, 1981).

Researchers shown that employees of hospital are regularly experiencing various effect of smokes like high rate risk of lung cancer. The health of employee can improved by following rules and regulation that says smoking is restricted in hospital and hospitality operations. To give an order it is mandatory to make city smokes free from worksites, restaurant, hotel as well as freestanding bars (Coryn, 2011). New York city have implemented smoke free regulations act to decrease smoking from most various field like public place that includes restaurants and bars. Despite the benefits of health, in such regulations consider as debate over various side effect that is economical effect of the industry of local hospitality.

Researchers proposed in various published report, which examined that economical effect on hospitality business due to this smoke free regulation act. It is examined the objective that measures sales and employment levels which is analyzed the data that are collected before and after implementing of smoke free regulation act (Coryn, 2011). Most of the researchers conclude in their objective measurements that there is no employment effect or sales effect happened due to smoke free regulations. The population of New York would never affect the hospital industry negatively.

Description of the used theory of the study

Most of the beneficial researchers provide results that generally beyond the context. The theory that guiding the researcher is the Chain of Reasoning logic. Each link of the chain rule is successively describe and develop the logical structure of the presentation to find effect of employee and sales in hospital industry. In this logical research of new finding firstly, require previous research that shows how the idea comes out. Secondly, researcher need to study about the existing report which determines the link of new research with previous researches. It also requires explanation of each part of resources and rationale. It requires analyzing the theory of previous researchers that that researcher has followed. Thirdly, need to specify the link that determines the questions as well as hypothesis and models of that link. It can describe the initial focus for the study of approach and it is able to make prediction on this research that represent the hypothesis (Dong & Maynard, 2013). The model that is designed, analysed and pre specified for the next link of the research study. Fourthly, Design of the research is forms from the model of the research. Design indicates the research phenomena. Starting with model and hypothesis leads to an emergent study. The research model translate into emergent design that lead to the procedure of the research. The procedure says the who, when, where, what and how of the study. The nature of intervention, the effect of measurement, the pattern of treatment and measurement decide the whole procedure of the research. The design that is leads to gather data to the next link. If the data are voluminous then it requires data redundancy. Narrative and statistical analysis requires to reduce voluminous data to the next link (Gatto, 2002). Narrative analysis involves finding notes of observation, documents, statistical analysis, and descriptive summary. When summary is analyzed in the final part of report it include as conclusion. Researchers to continuing the chain of reasoning and findings new research would read the conclusion that is given.

Description of the problem that addressed of the study:

New York City propose smoke free regulation act to make their city free of smoke. Here, Researchers proposing the effect of employee and sales in hospital industry due to ban of smoke in New York city. Taxable sales are a semi annual taxable data that would take from food and drink establishments. It is obtained by the New York state department of taxation and finance from each and every hotels, restaurants, bars and hospitals. It is also included per capita taxable payments for the employee from the hospital industry (Knowledge.segpub.com.proxy1.ncu.edu, 2015). The existing literature indicates that there is no cause of decline in sales and employee in hospital industry due to smoke fee regulations. Smoke free regulations act  that required fully smoke free area, prohibited smoking in hospital as well as in hospital operations. Researchers required minimum one year period of data with implementation of regulation act to analyse the project.

Researchers analyzed the outcome of the variables by determining modifies in sale and employment for the period of one year before and after the one year when the smoke free act became effective. Researchers made comparison between the before and after the period of effective act from various phased by law. Because individual law treat as similar conclusion and simplicity to make researchers to represents the data that is only from the initial period.

There is an another process called multivariate linear regressions constructed for the other factors that related to sales and employment and to analyse the outcome of each level. There are four variable to access and analyze the outcome are presence of smoke free law, whole time, season of the process, and rate of unemployed. The actual predictor in this model is smoke free regulation act. The effect of this employee and sale of hospital industry trends are controlled by the structural comparison of food and drink sales as well as unemployment, time and period.

Discussion of the authors’ justification of the selected methodology and design:

In the researcher presentations of new findings research, to do study researcher needs to analyze the previous work or research. This previous work or research is called link. It shows the idea that is arising in background of this research. The existing study or research determined the nature of the link that need explanation, analysis, theory, researchers point of view etc. With the knowledge of previous research  it leads the researcher to the rationale and point of view of the study.

The specific links identifies the proper questions, hypothesis these questions using the various models. From the questions the researcher is able to make a hypothesis of the project. A model can be identifies if there is any extensive interrelation of the variable seen in process.

The model formed a pre specified and emergent design for the project studies with the next link. Design of the project shows the path in which way researcher can lead the research. The procedure lead the project step by step that is determined in design part. The procedure is how the project can be lead from the start to end point (Krathwohl, 2009). Procedure and data is linked with each other. it shows who is or are the participants in the project, where the situation carried out, next requires what is the focus of action that lead the research, then what the records from, after that compare and contrast between the variable that researcher found, at last time table schedule generated.

In this perspective studies the data can be voluminous in that time researcher requires data reduction using statistical analysis and narrative analysis  method to reduce the summarize data into the next link (Mullan et al., 2011). Narrative analysis is use to find the significant data from the documents or notes. After all these linked states final section of summarized data section report as conclusion. These conclusion read by the other researchers to continue the research process further in future.

Analysis based on krathwhohl statement on the selected study:

Researcher is analyzed the whole project on the effect of the sale and employment in hospital industry. Researcher follows the Krathwhohl chain rule to get the new finding of research. This is true that researcher required the previous link to determine the each link of the new project for the project. Researcher requires previous document or report to understand the project theory and get an initial knowledge about the project. Previous documents or files or reports of existing researchers helps to the new researcher to understand the previous project requirement and link that helps the new project with older one (Krathwohl & D, 1964). By comparing and contrasting the new and old project link helps the analyzer to modify and develop the new project than existing projects. New project requires designing, analyzing, procedures etc that researcher can get from the previous link. It is very important to understand the project topic as well as the requirements to understand the whole research and helps to modify by the new researcher (Salkind, 2010).

To analyze the effect of sale and employee of hospital industry analyzer required the previous project link to understand the knowledge as well as to find the new point to research from the previous link existing research that is researched by others. From the previous various report the analyzer get new link to describe the project research as well as develop the project with new idea and new way.

 

Discussion the limitation of the study:

Due to smoke regulation act the sales and employee of hospital industry would operate in the jurisdiction. After and before the smoke regulation free act implementation data is followed by the jurisdiction of the New York City.  It leads the number of local hospital industry typically standard or slightly decrease (Williams, 2006).

However after one year the tax pay is increased by the implementation of the smoke free regulation act in the new York city. Indicator of the sales association and an employment association and predictors in new York is exhibit (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2003). Increase of food and drink increases taxable sales associate with smoke free regulation act. Sales and employment is increased statistically in the summer season. The presence of smoke free regulation act the hospital industry sale and employment effect established.

 

Reference List:

Best, J. (1981). Research in education. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Coryn, C. (2011). Book Review: Dane, Francis C. (2010). Evaluating Research: Methodology for People Who Need to Read Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 392 pp. $64.95. American Journal Of Evaluation, 32(1), 152-154. doi:10.1177/1098214010381643

Coryn, C. (2011). Book Review: Dane, Francis C. (2010). Evaluating Research: Methodology for People Who Need to Read Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 392 pp. $64.95. American Journal Of Evaluation, 32(1), 152-154. doi:10.1177/1098214010381643

Dong, N., & Maynard, R. (2013). PowerUp! : A Tool for Calculating Minimum Detectable Effect Sizes and Minimum Required Sample Sizes for Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Design Studies. Journal Of Research On Educational Effectiveness, 6(1), 24-67. doi:10.1080/19345747.2012.673143

Fraenkel, J., & Wallen, N. (2003). How to design and evaluate research in education. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Gatto, A. (2002). Product Rule and Chain Rule Estimates for Fractional Derivatives on Spaces that Satisfy the Doubling Condition. Journal Of Functional Analysis, 188(1), 27-37. doi:10.1006/jfan.2001.3836

Knowledge.segpub.com.proxy1.ncu.edu,. (2015). Northcentral University. Retrieved 29 August 2015, from https://knowledge.segpub.com.proxy1.ncu.edu

Krathwohl, D. (2009). Methods of educational and social science research. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

Mullan, N., McWilliams, L., Nathan, D., MacDonald, I., Smyth, I., Batty, M., & Glazebrook, C. (2011). Can Teachers Identify Children Who Need More Help to be Physically Active?. Pediatr Res, 70, 374-374. doi:10.1038/pr.2011.599

Salkind, N. (2010). Encyclopedia of research design. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.

Vodová, J. (2013). Chain rule for conic derivatives. Math Notes, 93(3-4), 523-538. doi:10.1134/s0001434613030206

Voeller, J. (2010). Wiley handbook of science and technology for homeland security. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Warriner, D. (2011). Patients who discharge themselves need further thought. BMJ, 343(aug10 1), d5054-d5054. doi:10.1136/bmj.d5054

Williams, K. (2006). American methods. Cambridge, Mass.: South End Press.

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