Wireless Sensor Network
Case Study:Authentication In Virtual Certificate Authority.
A number of techniques of distribution of key have been suggested in order to solve the authentication problem in WSN. Sensor network properties make the protocols of authentication developed previously not practical. Elliptic Curve Cryptography (Hess, 2012) was suggested for the cryptography of the public key. It would solve the issue of authentication in the WSN. The schemes based on Identity (ID) and ECC consume a lot of energy. The ID that is signature based require Weil and Tate pairing which results to energy and cost that is high due to the large size of the signature. According to Johnson and Menezes (2009), the algorithm of Elliptic Curve Digital Signature needs multiplications that are two point for signature verification. The operation of pairing is used in securing sensor networks that are resource-constrained although it is time consuming and expensive in terms of the requirements of the memory and computations. The source protocols of authentication utilized techniques of cryptography do not need high overhead of computation and computations which include µTESLA. According to Perrig et al. (2015), the protocol needs symmetric techniques of cryptography. In this protocol, commitments of the key chains are sent by µTESLA through the use of the unicast which comprises of the starting time and the time interval of duration though it cannot be applied in large networks of the sensor. µTESLA that is multi-level, however has been used to overcome the problem.
In the proposed scheme, if node of sensor wishes to change location, the Base Station will take control of the roaming node. The details of the node are stored in the Central Base Station. The Central Base Station will generate the key of communication as well as the secret key. The security of the node in this system is secured through the use of the Virtual Certificate in the time of the node relocating its position.
A. Virtual Certificate Authentication
Use of Virtual Certificate Authority in authentication will offer primary trust among the nodes. This can be achieved through the creation and verification of certificates. They are created before deployment is done. The authority of the VC is responsible for placing the nodes of the WSN in the network through the calculation of the value of the Link score. Before the authority of the VC issues the certificates to the nodes, the nodes that are malicious are first detected using some value of the threshold. The devices utilized in the architecture are the key management, Trust Center (TC) that is responsible for the network starting, distribution of key and the implementation of the policy of the control of access network. Manufacturer’s End Device (MED) is the end node of sensor and the (Akyildiz and Vuran, 2010) Manufacturer’s Certificate Authorities (MCA) plays the role of a third party between the MCA and the TC. Global Virtual Certificate Authority (GVCA) acts as the third party between TC and MCA. It signs the certificates of MCA and TC before deployment occurs during manufacturing. Manufacturer’s Virtual Certificate Authority (MVCA) acts as the third party between MED and MCA. MVCA signs the certificates of MCA and MED. (Holohan and Schukat, 2010).
B. Relocation of the Node
For a node to join a Station Base, it first sends a request of leaving to the former Station of Base. Then the Station Base gets rid of all the certificates and the keys related to the node. After the node has completed relocating, it will then send a request of joining to the new Station Base. When the request is accepted, the Base Station then sends a request of validation to the Trust Center. After the process of validation is complete, the new node is issued with a virtual certificate. The Trust Center is able to know about MCA through the use of the identification number. The TC is authenticated by the MCA before the certificates are distributed. Then the MCA is authenticated by the TC. The TC is issued with a pre-request by the MED for MCA device certificate. The MCA is where the implantation of the certificates occurs. TC receives certificate from the MCA which is then sent to MED. MCA is then verified by the MED. MED then requests TC for a certificate after authentication. After that, MVCA then signs the certificate and sends it to the node. (Yang, 2014)
The application of the WSN is anticipated that it will advance in all kinds of fields and therefore security of the data collected should be prioritized. This paper has presented the scheme of key management which enables sensors to seem like they are just roaming about several WSNs. The method of VCA supports authentication of the node and the mechanism of distribution of the key as well as enhancing goals of design which include scalability, simplicity control and interoperability for the specific manufacturers.
Akyildiz, I.F. and Vuran, M.C., 2010. Wireless sensor networks (Vol. 4). John Wiley & Sons.
Hess, F., 2012, August. Efficient identity based signature schemes based on pairings. In International Workshop on Selected Areas in Cryptography (pp. 310-324). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Holohan, E. and Schukat, M., 2010, July. Authentication using virtual certificate authorities: A new security paradigm for wireless sensor networks. In Network Computing and Applications (NCA), 2010 9th IEEE International Symposium on (pp. 92-99). IEEE.
Johnson, D., Menezes, A. and Vanstone, S., 2009. The elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA). International journal of information security, 1(1), pp.36-63.
Perrig, A., Canetti, R., Tygar, J.D. and Song, D., 2015. The TESLA broadcast authentication protocol. Rsa Cryptobytes, 5.
Yang, K., 2014. Wireless sensor networks. Principles, Design and Applications.