1) Identify and describe the six main factors that determine the duration and severity of noise-induced hearing loss.
2) Identify and describe three physiologic non-auditory effects of noise.
3) Identify and define three eye disorders and discuss how each is related to the occupational environment.
1. Noise induced hearing loss is referred to permanent impairment in hearing, which is occurred due to prolonged exposure to high levels of noise. There are many factors, which determine the duration and severity of noise-induced hearing loss. The intensity of the sound, which is defined as the power of sound in each unit area. The intensity of the sound is estimated in decibels (dB). The human ear can detect the sound ranges from 0 dB, to over 180 dB (Sliwinska-Kowalska& Davis, 2012). Higher intensity sound creates more noise-induced hearing loss. It is also observed that continuous exposure to the sound range of more than 85decibels, gives rise to hearing problem. Frequency, which is defined as characteristic of sound. The vibrations of sounds per second describe it. The sound with more frequency affect a person more. Frequency of a sound is estimated through pitch. In hearing problems, the people cannot hear the high pitch voice. The duration of the sound, also affect the hearing impairment directly. The more anybody is exposed to a loud sound, the more it will damage the hearing problem. In Occupational factor, the sound ranges over 85 dB affects the hearing in any working environment. In an occupational or working environment, the employees, who have to work with more noise, need to take care of themselves, like, the sounds of big machines (Sliwinska-Kowalska& Davis 2012). Non-occupational factors are generally environmental noises. This directly affects the hearing. Some example of these sounds are, rock concert, gunshot, movie, fire crackers etc. (Le Prell et al., 2012). Aging is the major factor in hearing impairment. The problems arise with growing age. So, the older people gradually face hearing problem.
2. The loss of hearing due to long term exposure into the noise can make many hazards in the human body. Those hazards can be described as physiologic non-auditory effects of noise, which are hypertension, sleeping problem, mental health problem, muscle stress, respiration problem etc. In Hypertension,
people who have high blood pressure get highly affected with high volume of sound. The high frequency of the sound raise the blood pressure and it leads to hypertension (Basner et al., 2014). The rate of heart beats also increase due to high volume. So, it’s very necessary for the heart patient to avoid any noisy place. Due to this reason, the silence is maintained highly in the hospitals and clinics. Secondly, people face problems in sleeping.
People cannot get proper sleep in loud noise. The brain becomes very disturbed in high volume of sound. The associated nerve cells don’t act properly. So, people are not able to sleep in noise. Due to this reason, loud noises should be banned in the night. People, with weak heart, become mentally depressed after hearing loud music
(Münzel et al., 2014). Due to loud volume, people cannot get sleep and their blood pressure also raise. So, they cannot become mentally stable. Gradually, they become hyper and aggressive in nature. It is highly recommended that, people with mental problems should stay away from noisy area.
3. Eye disorders can be describes as the problems in the eyes due to several harming factors. Among many other factors, occupational environment affects the most. The people are bound to stay in that environment due to their job. This continuous exposure gives rise to more problems in the eyes. Certain eye disorders due to occupational environment are discussed in this essay. In conjunctivitis is described as the redness of the eyes. This gives rise to inflammation in the eyes. There are many factors, which cause this disorder. Certain factors are pollutants, virus, pollens, smoke etc. (Liu et al., 2013). People who are working in factory generally face this type of problem in the eyes. In factories, there are many machines, which give rise to large amount of smokes. The employees of those factories are bound to work in bare eyes. So, they face this problem. In order to avoid this problem, the management can help those employees through providing certain eye-glasses. These eye-glasses can protect their eyes while working. In swelling of the eyes, the eyes become swelled and red. The puffiness is noticed in the eyes. Dirk circles and eye bags are observed in the lower eyes. Generally, these problems come due to working in the night or in the less light. The eyes need a minimumamount of light to visualize any object. In the absence of that minimal light, the eye lenses get affected (Wolter&Preda, 2015). Due to that reason, this problem arises. For example, people who are doing night shifts or people who are working very minute works, can be affected with these types of disorders. In order to avoid this problem, people should do certain eye exercises in daily basis. People also should work in proper light to lower down this problem. People with low vision cannot see any object properly. Due to high pressure on the eyes, the sizes of the eye-lenses change from its actual sizes. It leads to lower vision (Wolter&Preda, 2015). The people, whose works are completely based on eyes, get easily affected with this problem. For example, teachers, IT professionals, drivers. These people do their work in such a way, where their eyes are involved all the time. In some cases, this low vision gradually leads to blindness. In order to avoid this problem, people should do their eye tests in regular basis. In case of problem, they should wear eye-glasses with perfect power.
Basner, M., Babisch, W., Davis, A., Brink, M., Clark, C., Janssen, S., &Stansfeld, S. (2014). Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health.The Lancet, 383(9925), 1325-1332.
Le Prell, C. G., Henderson, D., Fay, R. R., & Popper, A. N. (2012). Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. Springer.
Liu, C. J., Brost, M. A., Horton, V. E., Kenyon, S. B., & Mears, K. E. (2013). Occupational therapy interventions to improve performance of daily activities at home for older adults with low vision: A systematic review. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(3), 279-287.
Münzel, T., Gori, T., Babisch, W., &Basner, M. (2014). Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise exposure. European heart journal, 35(13), 829-836.
Sliwinska-Kowalska, M., & Davis, A. (2012). Noise-induced hearing loss.Noise and Health, 14(61), 274.
Wolter, M., &Preda, S. (2015). Visual deficits following stroke: maximizing participation in rehabilitation. Topics in stroke rehabilitation.