This is a group of illnesses that is characterized by abnormal growth of cells with a potential of invading other parts of the body. Cancer has proved to be fatal especially in the developing countries where diagnostic and management tools are not quite available. There are more than 100 types of cancers. There are two types of tumors:
- .Benign tumors-this is the outgrowth of cells in one part of the body but do not spread to other parts of the body.
- Metastatic tumors-these are tumors that begin in one group of body cells and invade different adjacent cells and organs of the body.
Sudden appearance of a lump in the body, unexplained bleeding, changes in the bowel, nagging cough and breathing difficulties and obvious increase in the size of the lump can be an indication for the cancer screening (Chang, (2014). ). Early identification of the cancer at stage one, increases the chances of cure. However the stage two, three and four require palliative care to most clients.
Risk factors and protective factors.
- Exposure to ionizing radiations-mutation of cells has been associated with the radiations exposure. This result in the stimulation of the cells to outgrow beyond the normal cell growth(Tomasetti, . (2015). ). Radioactive fallouts from accidents may cause lung cancer and leukemia. This can be prevented by minimizing the exposure time to the radiations and frequency especially for those patients with high risk for developing cancer. Exposure should only be done when it is the only choice available. Also for medical practitioners to use the protective jackets when handling the x-rays or any radiation emitting machines (Tomasetti, . (2015). ). Workers in asbestos industries should wear protective clothing to minimize exposure if not eliminate.
- Family history of cancer-cancer never forgets its route. Some families with some genetic factors (carcino-embryonic factors) have increased risk for the development of certain types of cancers. There is nothing much that can be done to prevent this type of family bound cancer(Tomasetti, . (2015). ). Carcinoembryonic antigen can help in early identification of those at risk and guide them in lifestyle and other factors that can trigger the outgrowth of cells. Counseling clients for routine screening and self-examination as well as ability to diagnose abnormal lumps in the body.
- Smoking-this contributes to the development of the upper and lower respiratory tract cancers like the larynx and the lungs. Cessation of smoking is important. Helping clients to cope with the withdrawal symptoms to prevent relapse.
- Some viruses and bacteria- human papillomavirus has been known to cause cervical cancer as well as a risk factor for other types of cancers(Chelimo, (2013).). Hepatitis B on the other hand is associated with the development of the liver cancer. HIV causes Kaposi’s’ sarcoma and H-pylori associated with the stomach cancer. Practicing safe sex exercise by having protected sex can decrease chances of exposure to the HPV, HIV and hepatitis B. vaccination against hepatitis for the healthcare people who are exposed to body fluids (Kaczmar, (2016).). Education of the infected people on the treatment regimen and importance of compliances.
- Use of certain hormones-hormones like estrogen alone or progesterone recommended to treat menopausal problems among women has some side effects like breast cancer and endometrial cancer development. Therefore any women intending to have hormone replacement therapy should discuss the possible risk and benefit of the procedure with the doctor. Use of non-hormonal means may be of help to reduce these risks.
Strategies for health promotion.
This ability to control the undesired effects from occurring. It involves three stages:
- Primary prevention- the act of preventing the condition from occurring.it involves helping the client through health education to obtain and maintain appropriate lifestyle practices. Cessation of smoking, maintaining a healthy weight throughout life, adopting a physically active life, limit alcohol consumption. Encouraging clients for regular screening is paramount(McPherson, . (2016). ).
- Secondary prevention- early diagnosis and treatment of condition to prevent progression. Conditions like hepatitis and HPV can be diagnosed through routine screening and appropriate interventions are given. In this stage clients play a role in adherence to regular screening programs.
- Tertiary prevention-interventions to minimize and prevent complications as well as lowering the disease progression. This is done by the treating for the case of cancer use of chemotherapy can help reduce the rate of metastasis. Pain management improves the quality of life by decreasing suffering among the patient and helps them in achieving a dignified death while maintaining maximum functionality. Responding to the patients’ needs caused by the therapies involved is important in the care of the patient.
Health behavior change (post diagnosis).
Cancer diagnosis come with a tremendous behavior change to cope with the condition as well as effects of the therapies the patient has to go through. Given that there is higher rate of comorbidity in the population and evidence that diet, exercise and substance abuse affect risk for other cancers and other chronic conditions, hence needs for the lifestyle intervention in this vulnerable group of people (Joachim, (2016).). Helping the client in change process and maintaining a certain type of lifestyle with maximum comfort possible depend with the timing of the interventions. The timing of the intervention is dependent on the targeted behavior, channel of delivery, treatment received, side effects and the desired outcome (Joachim, (2016).).
This is important both before and after diagnosis of the condition. Prevention strategies before being diagnosed and ways of obtaining and maintaining the required lifestyle to cope with the current status (Chang, (2014). ).
Electronics available to be used.
Electronic patient self-assessment and management (SAM)- this s a framework used to transfer data to and from the patients. Questionnaire can be sent to the client and then back to the healthcare provider once the questions have been answered. I highly recommend this approach since it help the caregiver to obtain real time online information that guide in the provision of service to the client (Jensen, (2013). Also, the client is able to receive information on their progression and advice on the change of medication regimen to help them in the condition management. The information posted on the platform help the other healthcare practitioners in planning of care. This is obtained by creating a website where the patient is to access the information using his/her details and is linked to their email for convenience.
Smartphones. Inco operating the use of smartphones and web-based information on health issues like Google health where patients can access the information. Having the information enable the client to be part of the decision making process pertaining their treatment and other management. This can be assessed by supplying mobile phones to the client with the installed app where they are able to access all the required information (Williams, (2015). This is recommended since the client should play an active role in the management of the condition and not being passive.
Radiations monitors- it helps in measuring the intensity of the radiations being directed to the client and regulates them (McPherson, . (2016). ). This is an application installed into the radiotherapy machine. It should therefore be installed to every machine emitting radiations to prevent causing detrimental effects in the process of therapy.
Health care provision platform- the information posted in this platform should be accessed by any healthcare provider who is eligible to access using his credentials. Management of the patient become effective since the guidelines of practice is stipulated and standard care among all patients is obtained (Williams, (2015). It is therefore of importance to have this platform to help in provision quality of care among clients.
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Chelimo, C. W. ((2013).). Risk factors for and prevention of human papillomaviruses (HPV), genital warts and cervical cancer. , . Journal of Infection, 66(3), 207-217.
Jensen, R. E. ( (2013). Review of electronic patient-reported outcomes systems used in cancer clinical care. Journal of Oncology Practice, 10(4),, e215-e222.
Joachim, G. L. ((2016).). Living with chronic illness: The interface of stigma and normalization. . Canadian Journal of Nursing Research Archive, 32(3), 333-453.
Kaczmar, J. M. ((2016).). HPV?related oropharyngeal cancer: Risk factors for treatment failure in patients managed with primary transoral robotic surgery. Head & neck,.
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Williams, H. S. ( (2015). Dynamic consent: a possible solution to improve patient confidence and trust in how electronic patient records are used in medical research. JMIR medical , 457-501.