1.Different reasons for undertaking research are provided below. Provide an example for each of the following reasons for undertaking research in a nursing context.
a.Comparison: Nursing research can be defined as a systematic inquiry that seeks to develop knowledge regarding issues of significance to the profession of nursing, including nursing practice, administration, informatics and education. The aspect of comparison in nursing research allows for the comprehensive analysis of given set of nursing practices with an aim of establishing how they relate to one another. For instance, looking for a common approach to the treatment of diabetes and hypertension to establish the relating causes of the two illnesses in order to adopt a common method for its treatment.
b.Hypothesis testing: It refers to a statistical test performed on a sample of data in order to check whether the assumed hypothesis stands valid for the whole population or not. For instance, in determining whether the sexual abuse history in childhood influence the development of irritable bowel syndrome in women. Therefore, the hypothesis would be formulated as follows; women who were abused sexually during childhood bear a higher incidence of irritable bowel syndrome than women who are not.
c.Trend identification: Trend is a pattern of restrained change in a process, output, condition or general tendency of observable events to shift in a particular direction over time. There are various trends in the nursing filed like consumer education, access to nursing education, practice care and collaborative nursing. Therefore, the objective can be to establish the outstanding trend. For example, the emerging practice of protective care and its viability.
d.Own knowledge extension: the nursing profession exists to give services to the society and research is viewed as the most credible source of knowledge. For example, a team of medical experts researching on the need for change in complementary therapy with an aim of increasing knowledge on nursing in relation to humanism, participation and integration.
e.Strengthen quality of own practice: this aspect promotes accountability for nursing practice (Tilley & Watson, 2004). By participating in scientific research, nurses are able to develop sound rationale for their actions (Parahoo, 2014). For example, determining the most efficient nursing approach for mental health patients to improve the quality of their services.
2.Identify any three (3) credible sources of information you could access during the research process.
I would focus on reliable sources of data both primary and secondary. They would include field sources who are mainly the living persons who have profound knowledge in the nursing profession and intimate contact with trends in healthcare (Clamp, et al., 2005). The other source is online database such as MEDLINE and CINAHL that forms the secondary evidence of practice, meta-analysis and nursing practice founded on research. The third source would be historical data and tradition on contemporary nursing practices (Wolters-Kluwer & Williams, n.d.).
3.Identify the trilateral principles underpinning evidence based practice.
EBP describes the integration of findings of research with patient values and clinical expertise (Ellis, 2016). It is mainly client/ patient oriented and seeks to provide optimal healthcare services on a personal basis (Barker, 2009). The principles are; 1). Integration of expert opinion/ clinical expertise, 2). Interpretation of external scientific findings and 3). Integration of patient/ caregiver values (Glasziou, et al., 2008).
4.Identify any three (3) models of evidence-based practice.
The John’s Hopkins nursing evidence based practice model called Ottawa research model particularly address the practice nurse needs through the adoption of a three step practice known as PET: practice question, evidence and translation (Dang & Dearholt, 2018). There is also the Lowa model of research in practice and Stetler model of research utilization that assist practioners to evaluate the application of research findings in practice (Rycroft-Malone & Bucknall, 2010).
5.In your own words, briefly describe the ACE Star Model of Knowledge Transformation
The model describes a five stage process that is used in transforming knowledge into practice and is perceived as a cycle (Nelson & Staggers, 2014). The first stage is discovery that represents the process of research. The second stage is evidence summary that outlines evidence development. The third stage is translation used to form clinical procedures, protocols and practice guidelines (White & Brown, 2012). The fourth stage is integration that represents implementation of guidelines and the fifth being the evaluation stage used to monitor the expected outcomes.
6.Identify four (4) key rules of evidence in research process.
The way researchers collect evidence is usually guided by a given set of rules as outlined below; validity, currency, sufficiency and authenticity.
7.Briefly describe your duty of care requirements associated with evidence-based practice.
Healthcare requires considerable nursing and medical competence and experiences of a life on a personal level (Walshe & Smith, 2011). Therefore, to ensure the quality of care, there is the need for development of skills through training, supervisors, nursing staff and leadership to facilitate the implementation of EBP activities. One needs to consider the setting and involve personnel of healthcare who are at the point of care to help choose and priotize initiatives for safety of patients.
8.In your own words, briefly describe the key differences between evidence-based practice, continuous quality improvement and research.
The evidence based practice seeks to translate knowledge with an objective of enhancing the nursing practice. On the other hand, quality improvement focuses on improving the processes of patient care as well as outcomes in a particular context of healthcare. It captures the combined and unrelenting efforts of everyone, that is, planners, researcher, patient and their families, professional in healthcare, payers and educators. On the other hand, evidence based practice adopts a lifelong approach by nursing professionals to clinical practice through a systematic research, its synthesis and appraisal, patient values and preferences. For example, the exercise of implementing a new (EBP) clinical guidelines at facility with the goal of reducing or preventing extravasation of chemotherapy for patients getting vesicant therapy. The projects of quality improvement (QI) do not engage extensive reviews of literature and are specifically for one facility. For example, assessment and implementation of policies for removal of urinary catheter with an objective of achieving it within a definite time period.
9.In your own words, briefly describe three (3) ways a researcher could use to evaluate the validity of information sources.
The researcher should at the following aspects; relevance, currency, accuracy, authenticity and purpose. The researcher proceeds to determine the author of the information source. One evaluates the author’s credentials. For instance, if he/ she is recognized in the field as an expert and whether they represent an organization. The next step is to establish how the source obtains its information by looking at the references provided to ensure that they are reliable. The third step is fact checking the provided information if the source found by the researcher do not have any references.
10.Outline the steps involved in a research process.
Identify the problem
Review the literature
Clarifying the problem
Define clearly the terms and concepts
Define the population
Developing the instrumentation plan
11.In your own words, briefly describe three (3) cultural considerations for research
The researcher should consider the sensitivity of cultural practices and customs of a given population being researched on. It helps to connect with community members emotionally and culturally. The other aspect is their language in order to identify with the subjects in the field. The third aspect is their values and beliefs to create rapport.
12.In your own words, briefly describe three (3) ethical considerations for research.
a.Informed consent- seeks to protect the right to autonomy of subjects.
b.Respect for confidentiality and anonymity- the subject’s identity is not linked with individual responses.
c.Respect for privacy- the subject determines the circumstances for sharing private information.
13..Provide an example for how you would use each of the following processes to support analysis of information you gathered as part of your research.
a.Comparing and contrasting: the prevalence of HIV/AIDS spread among the young and aged people in Africa in 2018 to establish the existing similarities and differences.
b.Challenging: evaluating the possible ways of adopting new practices in physiotherapy as dictated by findings.
c.Reflecting: considering the implications of gained experience in mental health in relation to research findings on trends in the same.
d.Distinguishing relevant from irrelevant: the leading causes of infant mortality and would be more relevant than malnutrition based on the intensity of their importance.
e.Drawing interdisciplinary connections: evaluating the application of engineering knowledge in nursing practices like in chemotherapy.
14.Briefly describe how you will assess the strength, relevance, reliability and currency of the information you gathered during a research process.
a.Assessing the strength of information: by looking at the tone of language used to prepare the information. Positive tone depicts strong intensity of information.
b.Assessing the relevance of information: by evaluating the relationship of the information with the interest of the research problem.
c.Assessing the reliability of information: by evaluating the credentials of the author and authenticity of the source.
d.Assessing the currency of information: by determining when the information was published or lastly updated.
15.Briefly describe how you will assess the feasibility, benefits and risks associated with the information you gathered during a research process.
a.Assessing the feasibility of information: by looking at its previous application in a research setting.
b.Assessing the benefits of information: by conducting potential-based analysis of the information.
c.Assessing the risks associated with information: by evaluating the shortcomings of the information source.
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