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Write report about a single public health issue rather than a campaign. There is no necessity to evaluate a
specific health campaign. Instead, an important public health issue must be described in its context. Countermeasures against the public health may be considered.

These countermeasures  may include legislation, targeted funding, enhanced service provision, changes to infrastructure, or other  initiative separate from and additional to any public communication or outreach of limited duration that constitutes a health promotion campaign.

Key Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease in Australia

Cardiovascular disease is a significant and ever-growing disease in Australia that is accounting for nearly one third of the all death in Australia (Woodruffe et al., 2015) Cardiovascular is also defined a number of heart conditions which maximizes the premature disability and morbidity while reducing the quality of life (Saundankar et al., 2014) . This disease is a very common cause of economic burden and especially highlighted due to the change of traditional lifestyle, which introduces the huge risk factors for the diseases. However, the burden of the disease can be decreased by reduction of risk factors, primary prevention of health priorities, making policies and legislate the act. Therefore, this paper will illustrate key the key risk factors, incident and affected people, countermeasures in the following paragraphs.

Cardiovascular disease (CDV) is one of the greater heart diseases that become a huge economic burden even if the advanced treatment procedure exists. It is considered as the heart and blood vessels disease including numerous health issues that increase the morbidity rate exponentially (Davis et al., 2015).  According to the report of the Australian Bureau of statistics, cardiovascular disease kills one Australian per 12 minutes (Davis et al., 2015). In 2014, massive number of hospitals report suggested that cardiovascular disease was the prime cause of high expenditure of healthcare system. It is predominate in high-income countries however the morbidity rate is higher in low and middle-income countries (Biswas et al., 2015).Most of the older individuals over 65 years are currently living with the long-term cardiovascular disease (Woodruffe et al., 2015). The lower socioeconomic groups, aboriginal people who live on Remote Island are also affected groups (Kaukonen et al., 2014). It was estimated that approximately 40000 people experience any of the cardiovascular diseases every year increases the economic burden (De Souza, et al., 2015).

WHO estimated that over 75 % of the premature CVD are preventable by reducing potential, risk factors and changing the lifestyle (Patel et al., 2015). A report by Australian health and welfare association suggested that approximately 6 million people of 65 years have high blood pressure greater than 140/90, which enhances the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Consumption of high poor quality of diet containing refining grains and added sugar, unhealthy fat can lead to the cardiovascular disease (Townsend et al., 2015). Few accumulated evidence suggested that one third of adult Australian have high cholesterol, which represents 5.6 million people (De Souza, et al., 2015). Subsequently, the incident of cardiovascular disease, especially myocardial infarction increases exponentially. A quantitative study elucidate different lifestyle can lead to the heart diseases such as smoking, consumption of junk foods can lead to CDV (Nichols et al., 2014). In the majority of the cases, obesity and diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver leads to the cardiovascular disease. Therefore, economic burden increase along with the co morbidity rate. Health belief model can be used for guiding the health promotion and disease prevention program for reducing the burden of the disease (Kaukonen et al., 2014). Health belief model can be used to design interventions and countermeasures for reducing the potential risk of the disease so that individuals can lead the disease-free quality life (De Souza, et al., 2015).

Incident and Affected Populations

There are different countermeasures can be taken for preventing the incidence of cardiovascular disease which will reduce the economic burden (Skinner et al., 2015). There are few health strategies that can be designed to manage the disease such as quit smoking, exercising for 30 minutes every day, eating heart-healthy diets, maintaining the healthy weight, getting enough quality of sleep and managing stress (Biswas et al., 2015). Carbon mono oxide in cigarette replace the oxygen, therefore, quit smoking reduces the level of it. Physical activity for 30 minutes helps to manage weight and reduces the heart disease. The diet containing lower calorie and more fruits reduce the probability of incident (Nichols et al., 2014).

Researches often overlook the significant role of the infrastructure of the healthcare in cardiovascular diseases. However, change in infrastructure can lead to lowering the occurrence of disease. Intervention approaches can be taken such as effective scale-up, maintenance and dissemination. Advanced technology for monitoring the heart disease and biomarkers is the important part of the intervention plan for managing a disease. Measuring the cause-specific risk factors such as mortality , biological and  with sound health professionals are the important part of agencies (Skinner et al.,2015). International agencies along with health commissions and health and welfare association are the key members of funding who play an important role in managing the disease in country level (Kaukonen et al., 2014).  Clinical managers can be the potential target for the changing the infrastructure since they have the direct relationship with the healthcare settings (Patel et al., 2015). The population based approached can be taken such as changes in setting and changes in policies and regulation along with legislation of the act. The tobacco control policy for taxation and regulations on production of tobacco, regulation on the tobacco consumption can be used for managing a disease (De Souza, et al., 2015). Healthy eating and active living policy can be implemented in the health care centers for managing heart disease. This will enhance the quality of life. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Act 1987 can be legislated in the healthcare setting for managing the diseases (Skinner et al.,2015). Australian National Preventive Health Agency Act 2010 and Food Standards Australia New Zealand Act 1991 can be applied in the public sector for reducing the disease (Kelsey , 2015).

Along with selected population-based approaches, the prime step of reducing burden is to strengthen the health system for superior care. Providing the different strategies to educating nurses for the monitoring essential signs of cardiovascular disease are important to reduce the incident. Development of healthy workplace environment, care process, and access to the crucial medical technologies along with educating nurses for important for reducing the occurrence of the disease (De Souza, et al., 2015). Potential drugs should be designed that will reduce the burden without causing any further side effect of the disease. Proper chronic care should be given to every patient for managing the disease. Nurses play important role in therapeutic communication with the patient to understand their area of concern and providing the information to the family members of the patients. Implement population-based approaches to the target population such as older people in the Australian can be a great countermeasure for reducing the health burden of the country.

Countermeasures against Cardiovascular Disease

Conclusion:

Cardiovascular disease is a significant disease in Australia that reduces the quality of life. It is considered as the heart and blood vessels disease including numerous health issues that increase the morbidity rate exponentially. Most of the older individuals over 65 years are currently living with the long-term cardiovascular disease. Few health strategies such as quit smoking, exercising for 30 minutes every day, eating heart-healthy diets, maintaining the healthy weight, getting enough quality of sleep and managing stress.  There is the significant role of international agencies along with health commissions in managing the disease in country level since they are the prime fundraiser. Implement of population-based approaches in addition to the improved infrastructure in Australian can be used for reducing the disease.

References:

Biswas, A., Oh, P. I., Faulkner, G. E., Bajaj, R. R., Silver, M. A., Mitchell, M. S., & Alter, D. A. (2015). Sedentary time and its association with risk for disease incidence, mortality, and hospitalization in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of internal medicine, 162(2), 123-132.

Davis, C. R., Bryan, J., Hodgson, J. M., Wilson, C., Dhillon, V., & Murphy, K. J. (2015). A randomised controlled intervention trial evaluating the efficacy of an Australianised Mediterranean diet compared to the habitual Australian diet on cognitive function, psychological wellbeing and cardiovascular health in healthy older adults (MedLey study): Protocol paper. BMC Nutrition, 1(1), 35.

De Souza, R. J., Mente, A., Maroleanu, A., Cozma, A. I., Ha, V., Kishibe, T., ... & Anand, S. S. (2015). Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Bmj, 351, h3978.

Kaukonen, K. M., Bailey, M., Suzuki, S., Pilcher, D., & Bellomo, R. (2014). Mortality related to severe sepsis and septic shock among critically ill patients in Australia and New Zealand, 2000-2012. Jama, 311(13), 1308-1316.

Kelsey, J. (2015). Reclaiming the future: New Zealand and the global economy. Bridget Williams Books.

Nichols, M., Townsend, N., Scarborough, P., & Rayner, M. (2014). Cardiovascular disease in Europe 2014: epidemiological update. European heart journal, 35(42), 2950-2959.

Patel, A., Cass, A., Peiris, D., Usherwood, T., Brown, A., Jan, S., ... & Webster, R. (2015). A pragmatic randomized trial of a polypill-based strategy to improve use of indicated preventive treatments in people at high cardiovascular disease risk. European journal of preventive cardiology, 22(7), 920-930.

Saundankar, J., Yim, D., Itotoh, B., Payne, R., Maslin, K., Jape, G., ... & Burgner, D. (2014). The epidemiology and clinical features of Kawasaki disease in Australia. Pediatrics, peds-2013.

Skinner, C. S., Tiro, J., & Champion, V. L. (2015). The health belief model. Health behavior: theory, research, and practice. 5th ed. San Francisco (US): Jossey-Bass, 75-94.

Townsend, N., Nichols, M., Scarborough, P., & Rayner, M. (2015). Cardiovascular disease in Europe—epidemiological update 2015. European heart journal, 36(40), 2696-2705.

Woodruffe, S., Neubeck, L., Clark, R. A., Gray, K., Ferry, C., Finan, J., ... & Briffa, T. G. (2015). Australian Cardiovascular Health and Rehabilitation Association (ACRA) core components of cardiovascular disease secondary prevention and cardiac rehabilitation 2014. Heart, Lung and Circulation, 24(5), 430-441.

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