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Explain the effects of Obesity on Breast Cancer.

The Relationship Between Obesity and Breast Cancer

Breast cancer has been the most humiliating concern that women in the world have experienced in the present age and period, Paul et al (2018). Young women and old alike have not been spared by this menace. It is actually sweeping them all in each and every continent, country and state in the world. This cancer has been hideous in a way and the researchers have been working on the main causes of the breast cancer and how it can be prevented. According to, Demchig et al (2018) there have been many conclusions that obesity has a direct relationship with the breast cancer proliferation which has not been corporately agreed up. The researcher through a descriptive study focuses on the affected women and deduces the contribution percentage of obesity to the condition. This would help in establishing other causative agents that may be linked to the problem at hand. Also through this strategy, the various issues emanating from the research work a sure platform on this assertion may be introduced which will help in other subsequent studies. The study focuses mainly on what correlation does obesity has towards incidences of breast cancer.

The main goal of this study is to show the relationship that exists between obesity and breast cancer. There are so many studies that have conflicting information about this crucial subject of discussion as Hauspurg et al (2018) relates. This is because there has been an almost outcry that most of the breast cancer cases must be obese at one moment of their life.  In other words, the study would reveal the true nature of this subject that has had a heated debate in many forums with diverse opinions from many authors in different quarters.

The main tenor of this dissertation is to identify the real truth that ranges within the background through the scientific scholars about what effects does obesity have on the lives of women in terms of cancer. The undertaking anticipates to scrutinize different sources of information and synthesize them to come up with a conclusion needed. It is believed by the researcher on this fundamental concept that, much more good would be realized especially to the target group in the locality. The findings also can be applied to any other part of the world as a sample work to serve as an example. Great and stupendous positive social impacts are expected at various levels. The women who are to be engaged in this research will be able to understand the underlying risks that obesity has on their lives; this will control many deaths that may have resulted as a  result of ignorance. The medical researches performed will add more credit to the mechanisms that can be assumed within the healthcare settings.

Conflicting Information Regarding the Relationship

When the clear information is received out of what lifestyle can influence the welfare of people, the community can benefit from the public education they will be served with. The public forums will have a positive index towards saving lives. The outcomes of this research serve as a unit that can be applied to each and every part of the world. The findings will be universalized can be used as a template for exploration more on this very same subject to help humanity.

In the present world, there are very serious conditions that have proved fatal to the human existence. Obesity has been reckoned as one of the major threat that is currently in this universe. It is not until the recent decades when this condition has arrived and has great negative implications in the world. Change of the lifestyle in terms of diet, the physical activities have a telling influence on its rapidity. Also, other extra environmental factors in the universe have also contributed to the spread. Once one becomes obese, many other conditions are fueled in the body and affect the body as well. These include diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases and many others. Recent studies have demonstrated to some extent that obesity can increase the risk of women especially of mature age to have breast cancer as confirmed by, Rastelli, Knauf & Cani (2018).

On the same note,Cummings & Schauer (2017), argue that excess fat in the more so the adipose tissue affects the production of estrogen which is the female reproductive hormone which triggers the generation of the breast cancer in women. The study will tend to follow up to this to find out the facts about it; these health conditions have actually increased the mortality levels of the humanity and everywhere there are deaths witnessed, by and large. The issue of excessive increment in weight to either male or females has for years been viewed as a lifestyle condition, Nadadur, Stanczyk, Tseng, Kim & Wu (2016) argue so, according to ,  in the recent and present dispensation, it has proved more chronic than many other conditions that were thought to be so. In fact, it has been a great headache to many scientists who have been evaluating the causes and the outcomes it has in the human organism. For many people, the art of maintaining the just right weight becomes more challenging as time passes by. There are many types of research that have been established that speak volumes of what obesity can to the human machinery when it finds its way therein.

The Purpose of the Study

Currently, there are so many cases of the interrelated cases which are connected with the obese condition. Such may not be limited to blood sugar levels increase, diabetes and other complications, but more and beyond breast cancer in women has also been hinted to be one of the issues that are linked with the obese condition, Bertoldo et al (2018). The excess fatty element in women, especially around the abdomen, is considered to have a baleful correlation to this obesity which increases the vulnerability of cancer.  High fat concentration suppresses the normal production of the sex hormone is in charge of regulating the development of cancer in women. Therefore, when this has happened then, a woman is standing in a position to acquire the disease. There are numerous opinions about this issue that have not been verified as well as others which are convincing enough. It is the purpose of this dissertation to really compare various works and studies conducted to establish the real meaning of this proposition and later come up with a persuading termination on this so widely debated concern by several researchers.

In this section of, it is the burden of the author to delineate important aspects related to the topic of the research from many other authors who have done research on it and find out the findings. In this part, the researcher intends to ensure that he tackles these fundamental points of argument. The major causes of breast cancer, the role of obesity in cancer and finally draw a conclusion.

According to, Agarwal (2015) it is known that obesity condition has a powerful link between the progressions of breast cancer in women. This disease actually suppresses and minimizes the production of the essential iron component in the breast tissues of a woman in a similar study done by, Martelet al (2018). This is clear evidence that there is a relationship that acts therein. 

In another study confirming of the same effect, Mansoori et al (2018) say that there is a linear degeneration of macular cells of the breast with age and the burden of obesity in old women and, Protani (2014) agrees with the same assertions. In the study conducted also by , Liu, Lin,  Miaskowski, Chen, & Chen (2017) much about the behavior of body fat element and the sex hormone demonstrated the effect they have which actually tend to regulate the production hence paving way for the overgrowth of the breast cells hence breast cancer, Kakugawa et al (2017).

Methodology

However, in this specific study, Gallagher, Neel, Antoniou, Yakar & LeRoith (2017), it was found that it is not necessary that there must be a close connection between breast cancer and other types of cancer as obesity increases, Li & Han (2018). Actually, there are many who are obese but they do not have cancer as the study enumerated, Neuhouser et al (2015). In the same line of contrary idea, it is reckoned that so much meager information has been known about the relationship that obesity has towards the development of breast cancer, Widschwendter et al (2015).

It is the conviction of the researcher that through the construction of a theory based model to tackle this challenge, much more can be unleashed on the contention. For there to be a true restoration of women who are under the siege of cancer, a model that connects well between the obese condition and the link it has with the breast cancer must be well established, Revising& Ryan (2018). This paper is divided into sections that will actually help the researcher bring out the issues as they are. These subsections labor to deliver the facts on the subject of the study as they come to ultimately draw a conclusion that happens in the research question. Through the review, many ideas concerning the problem at hand are discussed. In the methodology section much about how the data collection can be done, administration of the instruments to the sample population and finally how to arrive at the conclusion all have been pointed out clearly. The framework defines the roadmap of the entire research that is to be conducted.

What is the true relationship that exists between obesity and breast cancer and what are the restorative mechanisms that can be employed to avert the condition?

The nature of the study will be descriptive of its form. This manner of the study is very helpful especially when the researcher is interested in finding the cause of a disease, in relation to the surrounding factors. The information that the researcher would wish to get will involve the use of ethnographic strategies to acquire the right information from the statistics and means of evaluating the data collected must be clear, Carter &Martin (2017). The person to be involved in the inquiry process must be well acquainted with the information that is under research and can be able to win the confidence of the participants on their ground. With this being taken into account, the women can open clearly to the investigator and explain all that they have gone through in times of their calamity that befell them. This experience is foundational for the conclusions to be met in the long run by the researcher in his or her estate.

Conclusion

The primary target group of the study will involve those women who are victims of breast cancer for over a period of one year and above to form the participants. The researcher intends to work with these to establish the fact at hand. Other people who have other related health complications will be off the focus of the study as per the guidelines of the researcher.

Assumptions were made that the participant of this exercise would be honest enough and provide all the necessary information that was needed for proper assessment. This was because of the protocols that were set before the interrogation. It was agreed that no publishing of the client's information anywhere without their authority on the same. It was made that it was not a compelling aspect, the concerned would come at their own will and express their experience on how they have been fairing on in the cause of time. The major participants in the exercise of normal exchange will be the female interrogators to enhance confidence and opening up of the affected women. The participants also were required to feel at ease to express all their conditions that they were going through in order to seek a solution to the over-arching problem of breast cancer in young women of the present age. This being the fact on the ground it was expected that the information delivered by the involved would really represent the truth of the matter at the end of the study. Also, confidence levels were assumed to increase especially because of the gender intervention in the inquiry of the state of the women.

In such a serious study, the methodology is a critical area to factor in, if the methodology is wrong it is evident that the findings may be misleading as well. The researcher intends to employ of the research designs methods called descriptive which involve the use of other important elements such as evaluative techniques and ethnographic representations to powerfully dissect the matters as they are Yin (2017).  This manner of the design is keen to consider all the factors that are in close relationship with the subject matter and help the researcher arrive at the desired end at the end of it all, Wojcicki, Elwan, Lin, Blackburn,  & Epel  (2018).  All manner of data be it qualitative or quantitative will be collected for the purpose of use in the whole study. The population of the study that the researcher intends to use is actually adult women, with the sample consisting of the survivors of breast cancer in one of the states in the USA aged between 45-70 years, Cahill et al (2018). In order to come up with the sample of the study, the investigator is to be from one of the health centre in the state having a broad knowledge of the disease and only through personal will, are the participants to be involved in the evaluation. This is to ensure the tranquility of the highest nature and openness as well. Through well-designed questionnaires, the researcher would administer to the participants and interview them on a personal capacity to confirm the realities on the ground. After the results have been collected they are to be evaluated and analyzed by a cohort of specialists who are to verify, validate and draw the findings. The results are to be tested to manifest the response to the research question of the researcher

Conclusion

From the review of five studies on the subject of study, it brings mixed ideas about the relationships. Six out of the five studies agree with the statement though still with scanty information about it while the other three differs from the former because of the insufficiency of information about it. Six articles which agreed on the possibility of obesity provoking growth of cancer in woman demonstrates to some extent the certainty that is existing. The deductions from the published works show that a healthful lifestyle is an outstanding factor in achieving sound health. The counter articles reveal that there is much that has not been discovered about the assertion.  This creates an exciting gap which ensures that much must be done by the researchers to establish yet a connecting link between the debates. Once this is realized, many young and old women will be helped and recovery measures can be instituted.

References

Agarwal, P. (2015). Effect of Obesity-associated Iron dysregulation on Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women (Doctoral dissertation).

Bertoldo, M. J., Uddin, G. M., Youngson, N. A., Agapiou, D., Walters, K. A., Sinclair, D. A., ... & Gilchrist, R. B. (2018). Multigenerational obesity-induced perturbations in oocyte-secreted factor signalling can be ameliorated by exercise and nicotinamide mononucleotide. Human Reproduction Open, 2018(3), hoy010.

Cahill, A. G., Haire?Joshu, D., Cade, W. T., Stein, R. I., Woolfolk, C. L., Moley, K., ... & Klein, S. (2018). Weight control program and gestational weight gain in disadvantaged women with overweight or obesity: a randomized clinical trial. Obesity, 26(3), 485-491.

Carter, P., & Martin, G. (2017). Engagement of patients and the public in NHS sustainability and transformation: An ethnographic study. Critical Social Policy, 0261018317749387

Cummings, D. E., & Schauer, P. R. (2017). Endoscopic gastric plication for obesity: Where might it fit in the scheme of things?. Obesity, 25(2), 284-285.

Demchig, D., Mello-Thoms, C., Lee, W., Khurelsukh, K., Ramish, A., & Brennan, P. (2018). Observer Variability in Breast Cancer Diagnosis between Countries with and without Breast Screening. Academic radiology.

Gallagher, E. J., Neel, B. A., Antoniou, I. M., Yakar, S., & LeRoith, D. (2017). The increased risk of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes: potential mechanisms. Principles of Diabetes Mellitus, 731-753.

Hauspurg, A., Lemon, L. S., Serra, A. E., Sharma, S., Venkataramanan, R., & Caritis, S. N. (2018). Impact of Obesity on the Rate of Recurrent Spontaneous Preterm Birth in Women Treated with 17-alpha Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate. American journal of perinatology.

Kakugawa, Y., Tada, H., Kawai, M., Suzuki, T., Nishino, Y., Kanemura, S., ... & Minami, Y. (2017). Associations of obesity and physical activity with serum and intratumoral sex steroid hormone levels among postmenopausal women with breast cancer: analysis of paired serum and tumour tissue samples. Breast cancer research and treatment, 162(1), 115-125.

Li, J., & Han, X. (2018). Adipocytokines and breast cancer. Current problems in cancer.

Liu, L. N., Lin, Y. C., Miaskowski, C., Chen, S. C., & Chen, M. L. (2017). Association between changes in body fat and disease progression after breast cancer surgery is moderated by menopausal status. BMC cancer, 17(1), 863.

Mansoori, Y., Tabei, M. B., Askari, A., Izadi, P., Daraei, A., Bastami, M., ... & Tavakkoly?Bazzaz, J. (2018). Expression levels of breast cancer?related GAS 5 and LSINCT 5 lnc RNA s in cancer?free breast tissue: Molecular associations with age at menarche and obesity. The breast journal.

Martel, S., Poletto, E., Ferreira, A. R., Lambertini, M., Sottotetti, F., Bertolini, I., ... & Ziliani, S. (2018). Impact of body mass index on the clinical outcomes of patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. The Breast, 37, 142-147.

Nadadur, M., Stanczyk, F. Z., Tseng, C. C., Kim, L., & Wu, A. H. (2016). The effect of reduced dietary fat and soy supplementation on circulating adipocytokines in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled 2-month trial. Nutrition and cancer, 68(4), 554-559.

Neuhouser, M. L., Aragaki, A. K., Prentice, R. L., Manson, J. E., Chlebowski, R., Carty, C. L., ... & Urrutia, R. P. (2015). Overweight, obesity, and postmenopausal invasive breast cancer risk: a secondary analysis of the women’s health initiative randomized clinical trials. JAMA oncology, 1(5), 611-621.

Paul, M. R., Pan, T. C., Pant, D., Belka, G. K., Chen, Y., Shih, N., ... & Stavropoulos, W. (2018). Abstract PD8-04: Evolutionary history and genomic landscape of metastatic breast cancer.

Protani, M. (2014). Examining the role of obesity in the survival of women with breast and ovarian cancers.

Rastelli, M., Knauf, C., & Cani, P. D. (2018). Gut microbes and health: a focus on the mechanisms linking microbes, obesity, and related disorders. Obesity, 26(5), 792-800.

Widschwendter, P., Friedl, T. W., Schwentner, L., DeGregorio, N., Jaeger, B., Schramm, A., ... & Kost, B. (2015). The influence of obesity on survival in early, high-risk breast cancer: results from the randomized SUCCESS A trial. Breast Cancer Research, 17(1), 129.

Wojcicki, J. M., Elwan, D., Lin, J., Blackburn, E., & Epel, E. (2018). Chronic Obesity and Incident Hypertension in Latina Women Are Associated with Accelerated Telomere Length Loss over a 1-Year Period. Metabolic syndrome and related disorders.

Yin, R. K. (2017). Case study research and applications: Design and methods. Sage publications.

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