Risks associated with Deep Vein Thrombosis include inheritance of a blood clotting disorder, long periods of bed rest for instance in the event of a hospital stay or when paralyzed. Surgery or injury and pregnancy can lead to the disease (Wilcox et al. 2018). The use of pills of oral contraception or birth control and therapy for hormone replacement are two risks that can lead to the disease. Cancer, smoking, and obesity are other reasons why people develop the condition. People above the age of 60 are at a higher risk of contracting the disease compared to those below the age (Wilcox et al. 2018). Other patients develop the condition due to a family history of the same. Signs of the disease include rapid breath, feelings of light-headedness or fainting and chest pain when coughing or taking a deep breath (Wilcox et al. 2018). Various complications accrue from DVT. They include heart failure, pulmonary embolism, and Post-thrombotic syndrome. Standard tests for ruling out DVT include Venography, D-dimer test, or an Ultrasound.
The period of pregnancy causes various significant hemodynamic and metabolic alterations in the body. The body needs to be in a position to accommodate the growing fetus. At times, the body might fail to adapt to the new changes, and this might lead to complications in the woman’s health and wellbeing (Wilcox et al. 2018). Complications that accrue from such phenomenon are referred to as hypertensive pregnancy disorders. They include preeclampsia, hypertension, preterm birth, and Gestational Diabetes. Peripheral Artery Disease is one such complication. The disease entails the blockage of blood vessels in the legs (Wilcox et al. 2018). Physicians can save the woman’s life if the complication is detected early. Early detection prevents the risk of acquiring a heart attack or stroke. A pregnant woman needs all the help she can get to remain healthy especially during pregnancy.
The standard differential diagnosis for adults that present with lower leg edema is venous disease, adverse reaction to surgery of the ipsilateral limb, lipedema, and lymphedema. The condition can be confirmed using lymphoscintigram (El-Harasis, et al., 2018), ultrasound, or magnetic resonance imaging. Causes of the disease include low levels of albumin, allergic reactions, obstruction of flow, and critical illnesses. Treatment of edema entails the treatment of its underlying cause. For examples, allergens can be used in the treatment of allergies as a way of treating edema (El-Harasis, et al., 2018). Edema caused by a block of fluid blockage can be handled by making the fluid to start flowing again. The treatment of blood clots in the legs takes the form of use of blood thinners, which streamline the flow of blood. The treatment of blood tumors blocking the flow of blood takes the way of shrinking the tumor or removing it by the use of surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy (El-Harasis, et al., 2018). The peripheral arterial disease occurs when the leg muscles suffer restricted supply of blood. It results from cholesterol, fatty materials, and plaque that build up in the arteries. Arterial insufficiency entails blockage of the free flow of blood in the arteries whereas that in the veins is called venous insufficiency. Both insufficient cause significant risk to health.
El-Harasis, M., Connolly, H., Miranda, W., Qureshi, M., Sharma, N., Al-Otaibi, M., et al. (2018). Progressive Right Ventricular Enlargement due to Pulmonary Regurgitation: Clinical Characteristics of a “Low Risk” Group. American Heart Journal, 1(1), 134-144.
Wilcox, T., Newman, J., Maldonado, T., Rockman, C., & Jeffrey, B. (2018). Peripheral vascular disease risk in diabetic individuals without coronary heart disease. Atherosclerosis, 1(2), 216-227.