1.The two leadership theories that are important to nursing are transformational and authentic leadership theories. Transformational nurse leaders changes work environment by: balancing tension between efficiency and production, managing change process, involving staff in decision making process. Authentic leaders develop better understanding of individual’s own passion and way to display it in the work place. Authentic leadership is genuine, positive, trustworthy, believable and reliable (Doody, 2012).
2.Leadership and management are usually considered as two synonymous terms or used interchangeably. Both leadership and management are significant for providing good healthcare services. Leadership is a significant part of a productive and functional management. A manager must possess the qualities of effective leaders and a good leader must have good management skills (Azad, et al., 2017). Leaders begin and develop strategies which sustain and build competitive advantages. The remarkable leadership behavior that focuses on creating environment where every staff excels and develops is an important component of management. Every organization needs robust management and powerful leadership for optimal organizational productivity.
3.Terese Bondas proposed a theory called Paths to Nursing Leadership on the basis of differences between the nurse leader’s situational factors, commitment and education (Bondas, 2006).
- The four paths to nursing leadership are as follows:
- Path of ideals: In this path the nurse leader makes an ideal unit and caring culture.
- Path of chance: Several chance factors may lead to a leadership position.
- Career path: The career path provides more power to nurse leader.
- Temporary path: In this nurse accepts the position but they always have the choice to withdraw.
4.There are several health consequences of stressful work which leads to physical and mental health issues (Ganster & Rosen, 2013). It gives rise to many medical implications like diabetes, clinical eating disorders, pregnancy related issues, risk for stroke or heart disease, high blood pressure, asthma etc. It also leads to several other mental and physical issues like skin or hair related problems, digestive problems, hard to retrieve memory or think straight, back pains, headaches, premature ageing, hard to concentrate, insomnia, reproductive disorders, mental health diseases like depression, anxiety, etc
5.The various inappropriate time management and time traps includes:
- Lack of clear vision: the effective time management initiates with clear vision which is crucial in setting any individual’s priorities, goals which further assist in making sound decision.
- Giving importance to wrong things: at times, when there is more urgent works to complete, even at that time certain task will be more important than others. Hence, one task should of affect the entire work (Wittenberg, 2015).
6.Critical thinking in nursing can be defined as a logical, reflective thinking that can analyze the provided evidence and its implication to the situation of patient. The most important critical thinking skills are interpreting, analyzing and evaluation. On the basis of this nurses must have skills which involves: critical analysis, valid conclusion, introductory or commencing and concluding justification, elucidation of concepts, separating opinions and facts to evaluate the reliability of sources of data or information, recognizing conditions (Papathanasiou, et al., 2014).
7.Emotional intelligence helps nurses in better decision making, improve relationships, manage patients effectively etc. It is used as a means of communication, as all the staffs need to control their emotions as all the while delivering any service or communicating with clients or coworkers so that in case if something goes wrong they ae not reacting or showing inappropriate or rude behavior (Franchheti, 2016). They can use it to communicate with people by developing key skills like self-management, self-awareness, relationship management and social awareness.
8.Conflict is one of the problem that occurs in every organization specifically in healthcare settings where there is a continuous interaction between many people. It is a dynamic process which can be negative or positive, dysfunctional or healthy, within any work environment. It is the result of the perceived or experienced differences in common values, attitudes, feelings, goals, actions and beliefs (Boendemaker & Leever, 2010). Nurses play several roles likes educator, care provider etc. which lead to many interactions between coworkers and clients that significantly increases the chances for conflict among nurses in hospital settings. It can be of several types: intrapersonal, interpersonal, competitive, intergroup, intragroup and disruptive conflict.
9.Delegation is a management and legal concept which includes planning, evaluation, assessment and intervention. It can be defined as the transfer of responsibility to perform an activity from one person to another whilst keeping the accountability for the result or outcome. The essential elements of delegation include: accountability, authority and responsibility (Mueller & Vogelsmeier, 2013). Here responsibility means assigning work to a person, authority includes fulfilling of the responsibility when authority is delegated to other and accountability means to assess whether the person is performing given responsibility in appropriate way.
10.In nursing profession, when the nurse fails to act as per standard of competence and care, which eposes the nurses to litigation (Glasgow & Oxholm, 2012). The litigation here refers to negligence, not delivering the level of care that a prudent reasonable nurse under same circumstances; malpractice and professional negligence which can result in reprimand of loss of a license or nursing license.
11.Teamwork is crucial as it leads to improved satisfaction in job, reduced healthcare cost and improved patient care. Therefore, effective team is essential for creating a proper organizational environment. According to Bruce Tuckman there are four stages of team development which includes Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing. Another stage called Transforming/ Adjourning was added later. The forming stage is the early phase where members are unsure about their rules, roles, norms and hopes from them. Storming is the next phase in which members get into defensiveness, competitiveness, jealousy and dispute over personalities and roles; they may become disparaging of each other and leader. In the norming stage members staff members get to understand and know each other, agree on working styles, norms and system to follow (Kumar, et al., 2014). In performing phase all team members work with creative and positive attitude to obtain the goals. In final stage called adjourning members bring sense of bonding and closure with each other after the completion of team work.
12.The 3 different types of budget which are commonly used includes: Master budget, operating budget and cash flow budget. The principle of budget includes: flexible, analyzes the past, present and future, it’s a product of joint venture, it facilitates in planning and achievement of desired goal, represents expected revenue in comparison to the anticipated expense These budgets also assist in tracking and managing their resources (Rajan, et al., 2016).
13.Health disparities can be defined as the gaps or differences in the quality of healthcare and health across socio-economic, ethnic and racial groups. It refers to a higher burden of disability, illness, mortality or injury experienced by one group relative to another population group. Health disparities are also based on age, lifestyle choices, lack of access, environmental characteristics and sexual orientation (Riley, 2012).
14.The management of change is a process which is done to adapt according to the need of the situation. The process is about planning evaluating and implementing tactics, operations and strategies to make sure the change is relevant and worthwhile. The choices are not about choosing between people or technologies but it’s a combination of both (Al-Abri, 2008). The effective change is characterized by unfreezing old habits, introducing new ones and refreezing them.
15.There are several advantages of electronic health records which are as follows:
- Provides up to date, complete and accurate information at the point of care about each patient (National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, 2018).
- It enables easy and quick access to records of patients for efficient and coordinated care.
- Improves interaction between healthcare provider and patient.
- Enhance security and privacy of data.
- Helps to promote complete, legible documentation and also provide accurate, efficient billing and coding.
- Helps care provider to diagnose patients more effectively by providing safer care and reducing medical error.
16.The shortage in nursing means, the less number of nurses assigned to more number of patient which will certainly affect the quality of service being delivered. Hence, there should be adequate number of nurses for which staffing is necessary, as the more the number of nurses, the better will be the quality of service (E.Nassar & Abdou, 2011).
17.It is a process of analyzing the requirement of the job and then finding a suitable candidate who are interested and are willing to apply for the job. This process is designed to pull more and more candidate applying for the job and the company have more option to choose the best available candidate (Newton & Chandler, 2014). It includes several steps such as: identification, research, recruiting, assessment, interviewing, acceptance.
18.The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses described authentic leaders as the glue required to maintain a healthy work environment. These leaders are positive people who promoted openness and whose attributes involves reliability, believability, trustworthiness, compassion and genuineness. They engage employees to maintain positive behaviors in the work environment. Authentic leader enhances the motivation, satisfaction, engagement, involvement and commitment needed from followers or employees continuously to improve their performance and work outcomes which ultimately improves the work environment due to employee engagement (Shirey, 2017). This psychological engagement of healthcare workers or employees by the authentic leaders creates a healthy work environment.
19.LEAD project i.e. Leadership Enhancement and Development is a formal mentoring program that helps to enhance minority preparations in health care settings for leadership positions for minority nurses. Its main aim is to strengthen leadership skills of minority nurses via several workshops on strategies to overcome and confront workplace barriers and on race and leadership (Bessent & Fleming, 2003).
20.Practice development is a continuous process of developing person-centered cultures. The main objective of this model is to provide patient centered and innovative care. It mainly focuses on the way to address the quality of advance health care practices and quality care. This learning eventually brings transformation in individual and team practices. The person-centered care includes the principles of inclusiveness, connecting and individual contributions and connect (Heyns & Rensburg, 2017).
21.The difference between mentoring and coaching are described below:
Coaching is usually performance and task oriented whereas mentoring is relationship oriented. Coach helps individual to deal with problematic situation at work and plan for further phase of their career. Mentors encourages people to work to achieve goals and develop self-resilience. They assist individual by navigating the politics, rules and culture of organization (Podlesni, 2016)
22.Environmental design that can decrease workplace violence includes:
- Developing emergency signals, monitoring systems and alarms
- installation of security devices like metal detectors, cameras.
- Providing emergency exists and staff restrooms (Anon., 2017).
- Security escorts at night to the parking lots.
- Installation of enclosed station for nurses
- Providing waiting areas to assist and accommodate patient s and visitors who may have service delay.
23.The several challenges of succession planning include: lack of interest of nurses in 24-hour nursing leadership, negative view of leaders and managers of their roles and work; cultural mentality about the promotion and durability versus readiness; inadequate opportunity for promotion; aging workforce; lack of updated technology; shortage of funding, fixed number of management levels in healthcare settings, rivalries or competition among coworkers fighting for same position etc. (Ellinger, et al., 2014)
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