Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus a life style disease is considered as 21st century epidemic. In type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, the body develops a resistance against insulin (Tuomilehto et al., 2012). However, the beta cells of pancreas produce adequate insulin in response to the glucose level in the blood but, due to insulin resistance, the insulin receptors located on the cell becomes unresponsive and thus failure in the uptake o glucose. This prevention in the glucose transport inside the cell increases the blood glucose level and thus generating the symptoms of diabetes. Obesity or overweight is considered as the most important factor behind the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (Chen, Magliano & Zimmet, 2012). This obesity is driven by the diet chart and the lifestyle maintained. Many studies conducted so far have emphasized on the concept of healthy eating in order to fight back against type 2 diabetes mellitus (Kaczmarczyk, Miller & Freund, 2012). Mediterranean diet is a kind of traditional diet practiced in the Mediterranean countries. The diet emphasis on the consumption of vegetables and use of olive oil and recommend restricted or moderate consumption of protein or meat (Estruch et al., 2013).
This study conducted by Rossi et al, (2013) aims the role of diet in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For doing this, they have undergone a comparative study in between the Mediterranean diet and Glycaemic Load (GL) in relation to development of the susceptibility of the type 2 diabetes mellitus. The significance of the study lies in the fact that it will lead to the elucidation of how the carbohydrates consumption increases the susceptibility of the type 2 diabetes mellitus and how maintenance of Mediterranean diet, lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Relevance of the Research Questions: The aim of the study conducted in Mediterranean diet and glycaemic load in relation to incidence of type 2 diabetes: results from the Greek cohort of the population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is to investigate the dietary aspect on development of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. For doing this, the Rossi and his team of researchers have chosen two specific diet plan. One is Mediterranean diet and Glycaemic Load (carbohydrate rich diet).
Currently Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is considered as a life style disease. It is common in people who lead a sedentary life or are obese (Look AHEAD Research Group, 2013). Now sedentary life is something over which the present generation of the corporate world has no control. Their job profile, forced them to lead a sedentary mode of life for 8 to 9 hours at a stretch. However, to erect a protective shield against Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, one can control or maintain a strict diet plan. This research paper tries to elucidate that how limited protein intake (meat protein) and increase consumption of vegetables and olive oil decreases the risk of developing Type 2 Diabetis Mellitus. The paper also sheds light on the fact that how consumption of carbohydrate makes a person more susceptible towards developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Brief of the Methodology Used
Rossi et al. (2013) conducted a cohort study in 23 research centers that are situated in 10 different countries in Europe in accordance to the Helsinki Declaration. The study used a semi-quantitative questionnaire followed by statistical analysis in order to access the frequency of consumption and portion size of the food and beverage intake among the focus group. The nutrient and calorie intake was then subsequently calculated using a specific food composition database that has been designed in accordance to the particularities if the Greek diet.
A score (MDS) is given in order to access the conformity of the Mediterranean diet. 0 is assigned to minimal adherence of the diet while 9 is given for the maximum adherence. The GL is calculated via estimating the carbohydrate content of the servings multiplied by the average number of servings of that particular per day. This product is again multiplied with the foods glycaemic index (GI) (derived from the Foster Powell Table). Furthermore, the mode of cooking, food preservation are also taken into consideration to ascertain the GI.
Brief of the Findings
From the statistical analysis it showed that the Mediterranean diet lowers the diabetic risk and the GL/GI diet is associated with high diabetes risk.
Conclusion of the Research
The study showed that the affect of Mediterranean diet on diabetes control is not directly related with the weight control as in most of the Mediterranean people who follow the Mediterranean diet are not freed from obesity. The affect of Mediterranean diet on diabetes control is solely dependent on the dietary characteristics of the components included in the Mediterranean diet such as olive oil and vegetables.
Strength of the Research Paper
The study showed that the use of the olive oil is beneficial of the health as it generates the low risk of the Type Diabetes Mellitus. Olive oil, especially extra virgin olive oil is rich in mono-unsaturated fatty acids. The replacing trans and mono or poly saturated fatty acids with mono-unsaturated fatty acids has beneficial effect on the insulin sensitivity and hence will possibly reduce the susceptibility towards the development of the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (De Souza et al., 2015).
Another important strength of the study was, it was based on the general population.
Limitations of the Research Paper
This limitation of the research paper is, it did not include the diabetic people in the survey and hence this particular research failed to elucidate the affect of the Mediterranean diet on the people who are already suffering from the disease. Such that it did not throw light on how the diet is decreasing the severity of the disease.
The research also failed to throw light on how olive oil, vegetables (principal components of the Mediterranean diet) is helping to decrease to susceptibility of the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as Mediterranean diet has no direct relation with obesity (one of the most important factors behind the development of the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Martínez-González et al., 2012). Moreover, the cohort study failed to follow-up the weight of the participants while they are on Low GL and high Mediterranean diet and hence how weight is getting affected by the diet cannot be ascertained.
Furthermore, it was unclear on which component of the Mediterranean diet has contributed with the decrease in the susceptibility of the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus was not elucidated.
The study was conducted with a small sample size and hence biased results can be generated (Bean, Stafford & Brashares, 2012).
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