Nursing is one of the profession that is extremely important to the human kind, as they are the primary care givers when there is any kind of physical ailments. In the profession of nursing it is very important for a person to have patience, sympathy, and understanding of the human behavior so that the patients can be taken care of properly (Wong, Cummings and Ducharme 2013). It is also important for the nurses to have the leadership qualities so that the person may solve particular situations which are critical and problematic in nature.
In order to understand the concept of leadership and its applicability in mental health nursing it is necessary to identify a role model. For this reason, David Sines is chosen as the role model so that the discussion can be conducted in a proper manner. David Sines has been involved as a pro Vice Chancellor and Executive Dean of Society and Health at Buckinghamshire. He has been presented with the fellowship of the RCN in 1979 for his work in the advancement of art and science of nursing and community care (Hutchinson. and Jackson 2013). The reason behind choosing David Sines as a role model is mainly the fact that he is among the top 70 nurses that have been influential in the 70 years of the NHS.
In 2010, Professor Sines had been awarded with a CBE for his contribution towards health care. Some of the qualities that Professor Sines possess include being a Governor of three London trusts and he was the dean of health faculty in London South Bank University. Therefore, the leadership style and the ability to manage people in crisis are well known for Professor Sines. Apart from this, he was the head of nursing in the school of Health Sciences. This had provided Professor Sines with an opportunity to become a leader of the nurses and understand the situations that they currently hold.
The leadership style applied by Professor Sines is more of a transformative nature. This is because Professor Sines had aimed to provide scientific courses of action along with the nursing profession and create an environment that can help nurses gain more control in health care (Mannix, Wilkes and Daly 2013). He managed to execute a chain of command that needs to be followed by the nurses so that success can be gained in the health care centers all across the world.
Leadership in the field of wellbeing is additionally important to lead the subordinates with the end goal to give the best treatment to the patients so that there is no lack of regard in consideration providing for the general population who require it the most. Leader nurse will be dependable if there is any issue identified with the mindfulness program and furthermore being taken care of by the patients who are as of now treated under her she being a General Health Practitioner (Ross et al. 2014). Leaders need aptitudes that incorporate performing multiple tasks and taking care of complex issues. There will be circumstances where the workers would be out of thoughts and the leader must share her own idea and take care of such issues. Preparing is exceptionally fundamental in leadership. The nurse herself may experience a preparation procedure which will upgrade her leadership aptitudes and improve her as an administrator, communicator and the hireling of the general population on the loose. The representatives working under her may likewise experience preparing of whatever is required by them. Helen must distinguish the prerequisites with the goal that the workers get pertinent preparing.
Various examinations have investigated the connections between nursing leadership and patient results. The outcomes are very fascinating, as they uncover clear connections between the two. For example, transformational leadership was associated with diminished drug mistakes in most of the examinations. It appears as however things are done substantially more painstakingly inside the clinic when this methodology is taken (Yoder-Wise 2014). The style likewise was recognized with lower persistent death rates in half of the investigations.
The leadership that has social elements to it that incorporate the change and collective styles normally cause understanding contentment. Persons are for the most part more joyful with the administration that they get for both intense consideration and home healthcare. Necessity for restrictions is furthermore diminished as patients are meaningfully more agreeable with their medical attendants (Cherry and Jacob 2016). Aside from the lower frequency of medicine blunders, there are additionally less announced doctor's facility obtained contaminations. In the event that one will go to a healing facility, then it is certainly desirable over be admitted to those that hero these social leadership styles, as the result will probably be sure.
The National Institute of Health as well as the Journal of Nursing Administration disseminated related investigations in the past. It was discovered that transformational leadership was a positive influencer of a more protected environment inside the healing facility. It was associated with lessened staff turnover when compared with the others. The medical caretakers were more joyful with their work and remained therefore. Then again, the free enterprise method was seemed to greatly add to unit socialization.
Extra discoveries demonstrated that medical caretakers were rapidly ready to identify the difference among transformational and value-based leadership. They may be comparable styles, yet the execution and results are unique. Attendants were significantly more for the transformational approach as it advances inherent inspiration and occupation fulfillment. They loved the possibility of positive conduct impact and uplifting inspiration, considered by numerous individuals to be the best out of the considerable number of alternatives out there. In truth, every one of the styles have their place and the characteristic of a decent leader is insight in executing the correct style at the opportune time.
The new pattern of health care that is emerging requires the nurses to be effective leaders. The leadership among the nurses set trends for directions of the future nurses and what pattern of leadership they should follow. The future nurse leaders must be given clear directions about how they must act and react to the critical situations in their field. One of the first requirement to gain proper leadership in the field of nursing is by gathering knowledge and to understand the intricacies of nursing in proper details. To gain leadership qualities in a certain field it is necessary for the individual to be strong at the basic intricacies of the particular profession in which leadership is sought. The issue with today’s nursing profession is the lack of knowledge among people who are getting into the profession. Mere studying from the books and reading the regulated syllabus would not suffice in making a person leader in the profession of nursing. The care givers in the health field need other qualities such as patience, empathy, and patience among others (Scott and Miles 2013).
Professor Sines who was very effective in the field of leadership in Nursing, has been showing consistent qualities of leadership in the field of nursing. Therefore it is important for the nurses who are at the learning phase to understand the style of nursing leadership that was followed by David Sines and other role models who have set examples in the field of nursing. The transformational leadership is key to successfully executing the responsibilities of a nurse who can manage people assigned under him or r. This is the reason why the very successful nurse leaders have all shown traits of transformational leadership. The Issue presently mainly deals with various shortcomings of today’s nurses who do not have the larger picture in their mind while dealing with the patients and people under their care. Just performing the duty is not enough.
The present issues that concern with the nursing leadership mainly comprises of the attitude of the nurses and how they handle the critical cases that come across them. The nurses with leadership qualities also have to manage people under them, most of whom are also professionals from the same field but are juniors under the leader nurses. It is important for the leader nurses to keep an eye on the activities of the employees who are employed under them. David Sines himself had a high degree of management capabilities where extraordinary features of managing people, empathizing with their problems, understanding their shortcomings and helping in fulfilling those. They also have shown tremendous abilities in caring for the patients and taking the proper actions to resolve critical issues that needs urgent attention.
The preliminary research in the field of leadership in nursing started in the 1960’s and it is as of date under research and development stage as people are mainly doing their research on the topic and understanding how leadership in nursing can be improved and how better nurse leaders can be produced. Various topics that are under the research and development phase about nursing leadership are mentorship, reflective practice, effective leadership in clinical field, the relationship and adaptation of the nurses to health policies, effective care giving to the elder population through leadership in nursing, clinical supervision of the nurse leaders in groups, how patient outcomes are related to leadership in nursing and various other fields (Wong 2015).
There were various researches in the field of nursing leadership where the nurses in the learning phase were interviewed about their ideas of leadership and how they plan to perform the role of a leader. In this research (Barkhordari-Sharifabad, Ashktorab and Atashzadeh-Shoorideh 2017) has found that there are various issues pertaining to leadership in the field of nursing. “Nursing leaders put forth various aspects of the problems associated with ethical leadership in the clinical setting. This style of leadership could be promoted by developing suitable programs and providing clear-cut strategies for removing the current obstacles and correcting the organizational structure. This can lead to ethical improvement in nursing leaders and subsequently the nurses.” Most of the interviews were conducted in details and recorded on tape. The interviews in this particular case were semi structured and penetrative in nature. This important study in the field of nursing found out that there were major barriers in the way leadership was conducted ethically in the field of nursing. There were “These obstacles have various aspects in ethical, cultural, and managerial domains. Identification of these factors can promote the ethical dimension of leadership.” The findings of the study are aimed to solve the problems and barriers that are discussed above and the strategies may be thus formulated which will be helpful in better resolving of leadership issues in the healthcare organizations. The organizational structure must be improved through leadership of the care givers and the nurses. What more may be helpful is the ethical codes of the organization that will enhance the performance of the leaders. This study therefore again helps us to understand some of the issues in the field of nursing leadership.
The issues in nursing leadership are presently being studied closely so that they solutions can be explored. Nursing as a profession is quite exhaustive and testing and it is quite problematic for the new people joining in the profession. It takes a lot of efforts to get accustomed with the new environment and the new job conditions. It is very important for the nurses to be motivated and work more than their stipulated duties. The nurse leaders have more complicated duties to perform as they have to manage people apart from taking care of the patients under them (Makaroff et al. 2014). The concept of leader is dynamic and complex. Leadership is a characteristic trait that a few people possess and this can be cultivated in a better way when the people having leadership traits are trained in a better way.
The general leadership issues are concerned with the behavioral and managerial issues of the leaders and how these are resolved, in the case of leadership in nursing there are other factors that have to be kept in consideration (Giltinane 2013). The humanitarian aspects of the nursing profession are important factors to consider. It is very important for the nurse leaders to be following the footsteps of the role models in the field of nursing leadership. The nurse leaders who are otherwise seen to be not enthusiastic and not taking extra efforts for the betterment of the patients must be discouraged and the leaders who are focused in their job, in managing people in the most efficient way and giving care to the patients and others who need it with ease and efficiency should be encouraged to improve and progress in their career. The higher authorities must be careful of these facts so that better nurse leaders can be made.
Leadership theories and Evaluation:
In the context of nursing there are two types of leadership forms which are formal and informal. These notions of leadership however can exist in any form of organization. Formal Leadership in the context of nursing exists in case of a nurse being appointed and being endorsed with certain responsibilities and roles. In case of formal leadership the nurse concerned has a position and role approved by the management and other higher authorities of the medical institution (Scully 2015). These positions could be of a nurse manager, supervisor or even director. On the other hand, informal leadership is practiced by a nurse when no one has appointed responsibilities for the nurse. In this case the person does not have any responsibility or accountability on a formal basis. The nurse in this case is able to persuade others ad influence them without making use of any position or power. The informal leader in this case might or might not be a professional nurse. However, at the very same time the person has enough influential power among the group pf workers that he/she is working with. This can affect the workflow, efficiency and the achieving patterns of the concerned group of workers. This helps in easier setting of goals and finding solutions to problems in an easier and faster manner. Thus, it is very crucial and important for the nursing leader to recognize who these informal leaders are and work with them so that the operations are handled and monitored smoothly. This in turn will help in increasing the quality of services and help in increasing customer satisfaction as well as help in full capacity utilization of the employees in a motivational manner. In this context it is also important to mention that the employees who are directly working with the customers will be able to handle the challenges better and solve the problems arising in an efficient manner. Some of the most commonly applied theories of nursing are discussed and evaluated in the subsequent sections.
Leadership and management theories have evolved over the years in the context of organizational management and operations monitoring. Complex organizations in the healthcare sector are operated and managed using these theories. These theories can be divided into smaller theories which are mainly the systems theory and the chaos theory.
The Systems Theory is concerned with dividing up the entire organization into smaller departments depending upon the specialization or the responsibilities of these departments (Lathrop 2013). According to this theory all of these smaller sub divisions are independent and are concerned with their problems and their respective solutions. However, considering the bigger picture these smaller independent divisions are interdependent and so the functioning of one of these departments affects the other. It is also important to mention in this regard that the internal factors that affect one of these departments will also affect the other smaller departments and so the entire organization as a whole will be impacted. The external factors affecting the organization also affect the smaller sub divisions in a similar manner. This is asserted by the open systems theory. It is also asserted by the same theory that the internal factors have an impact on the external environment facing the firm or the organization operating in the healthcare sector. In contrast to the open systems theory, the closed system theory states that the internal working of the various smaller subdivisions of the firm are not affected by the external environment of the firm. This theory is thus considered to be quite impractical in nature.
Chaos Theory on the other hand is associated with analysis of complex and dynamic nursing management activities and operations. This theory has primarily been developed in alignment to various mathematical and computer science theories (Hauck, Winsett and Kuric 2013). It consists of mathematical equations and complex problem solving models. This is thus considered to be the most practical theiry that can be applied to the modern organizations in the healthcare sector. Small changes in the input values of the various variables affecting a particular sector produce huge changes in the output which helps in both predicting or estimating the future impacts of a change and also building easier solutions to problems already existing or problems that might crop up later. In the context of nursing, the application of this theory is very essential and important as it helps nurses to understand and evaluate the lack of stability and unpredictability through the use of non-linear systems and equations such that they gain insights to the occurrence of the problem and its consequent solution (Hutchinson and Hurley 2013). Various studies have shown that the application of chaos theory in the context of critical care is very important (O’neill 2013). The specializations of physiology and epidemiology are identified as the two specializations that especially need the application of chaos theory for purposes of risk assessment and problem solving. There are many purposes for which the chaos theory is implied and used on a specific basis and this includes the tracking of the census of patients in the intensive care unit of a particular healthcare organization. Increasingly the use of chaos theory is also being seen in the study of the natural or ecological system of a patient where nursing development is possible. It is this very theory which helps in integrating the notions of individuals, families and communities into a single entity in a pragmatic manner. It is used to study the dimensions of human beings that are based out of ecological or natural health. As nurses have to deal with a number of differentiated systems which can be human systems, physiological systems or even care systems, there can be random occurrences of problems which can actually be interconnected and this can be identified by the nurses with the help of the chaos theory. Nursing informatics is another study being used by nurses increasingly to the context of chaos theory in order to enable better management and operational functioning of the healthcare organizations.
This form of planning is also very important when it comes to the context of nursing. It is also known as the short range planning. There are many management functions that come under the context o operational planning and organizing is one of these management functions. Organizational chart is a very important tool used in this context (Hodgson and Scanlan 2013). It helps in effective and efficient management of the various subdivisions of nursing through the division of responsibilities in a critical and stringent manner. Staffing is another such management function. This in turn helps in catering to the needs of the patients on time and also recruiting and retaining and efficient and innovative workforce full of capable registered nurses. This aspect of operation al planning is also involved with providing the correct forms of training and orientation to the employees and registered nurses that have started off with their professional experience. It also helps in forming a frame work that helps to estimate the number of employees needed to meet certain goals and the budget allocation required for the same purpose. It helps nurses to improve upon their already existing skill sets and provides them with opportunities that will help them grow and in turn help in the growth of the organization as a whole. The next management function associated with operational planning involves the usage of the principles of directing. Under this concept the issues of the employees and the problems faced by them are solved and this helps in looking after the well being of the nurses employed for different specializations. Customer expectations are conveyed down to the nurses through the help of this management function such that the employees perceive these expectations in the form of performance expectations from the directors and other higher authorities of the organization (Dyess, et al. 2016). It is required of the nurse managers in this context to personally encourage and motivate the employees and especially the fresher employees in this sector. Further, another aspect of operational planning involves the concept of the management function which is role modeling. Effective communication and the capability of solving conflicts forms an important part of this management function. The delegation and work division skills are also equally important parts of this management function.
`Thus, it can be stated that there are various types of leadership theories in terms of nursing leadership and different theories are implemented for different management purposes as the role of the nursing manager keeps changing. Just like other leadership theories, the nursing theories are also differentiated into formal and informal theories and the application of these theories depend upon the situation arising in the organization (Sharkey, S. and Lefebre 2017).
Leadership is one of the most crucial qualities that is required in all fields of activities, and nursing is no exception. In a number of areas of the developed world the complexities in the field of clinical activities and healthcare are giving rise to the need of developing able leaders in the field of nursing. The nurse leaders are mainly dedicated towards managing people under them and also provide quality healthcare to the patients. The above discussion mainly expresses the fact that the role models in the field of nursing leadership has set standards for the future nurse leaders to follow. Empathy, patience and similar characteristics are necessary for the nurse leaders to maintain all the time they are working. The nurse leaders may have to work beyond their stipulated work time because the job is mainly humanitarian and there can be emergency responsibilities any time of the day. Leadership in the field of nursing is one of the emerging areas of study and it requires further research so that proper theories and principles can be developed in the field of nursing leadership and the issues at hand may be solved in the most efficient way possible.
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