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OB6210 Organizational Behavior And Negotiations

tag 0 Download 0 Pages / 0 Words tag 20-06-2022


1 Learn what leadership is and define it 

Leadership is the ability of a person through which he can influence others to follow his goals and vision. He inspires people to follow his views and beliefs.

2. What is the main argument of trait theories of leadership and of behavioral theories of leadership?

Trait theories talk of leadership being a result of inborn attributes of a person like physical appearance and intellectual ability. Behavioural theories suggest that leadership ability can be acquired by understanding some behavioural patterns.

2.1 Trait theories of leadership and emergence and appearance of leadership.

Trait theories of leadership focus on personality traits like honesty, trustworthiness and energy.  Researchers identified 80 personality traits which lead to creation of able leaders. The big five personality traits framework tries to classify leadership traits into five categories. These are extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, agreeableness and neurotises or emotional stability.

3 Ohio State studies of leadership (initiating structure vs. consideration) and University of Michigan studies of leadership (employee-oriented vs. production-oriented leader)

As per Ohio State University of leadership, people orientation leaders show behaviour of encouragement, motivation and listening. Task oriented leaders show behaviour of initiating, clarifying and organising according to this theory.  University of Michigan study found that employee oriented leaders focus on building relationship with employees. Production oriented leaders focus on technical aspects of the organisation and getting work done.

4 Contingency theory of leadership

4.1 Fiedler’s model of leadership; the situational dimensions (e.g., leader-member relations, task structure, and position power)

Fielder created a least preferred co-worker (LPC) scale which measured leaders least co-worker preference starting from unfriendly to friendly, uncooperative to cooperative etc. on a 1 to 8 scale. A high LPC scale shows a high relationship orientation for the leader as he finds most co-workers friendly. A low LPC scale shows a task oriented leader as it shows that leader finds co-workers uncooperative.

4.2 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory: How leaders should behave if followers are willing or unwilling and able or not able to do a task

This theory stipulates that no single style of leadership exists and styles of effective leaders very as per situation and performance ready ness of the workers. If workers are unable and confident then controlling should be used. If workers are capable but unwilling then supporting should be used.  Hence a leader’s action depends on maturity level of workers.

4.3 Path-goal theory of leadership

This theory focuses on the choice of a leadership style that best suits the employee or the work environment. That style is chosen which increase the empowerment, motivation and satisfaction of the employee

5 Leader-member exchange (LMX): In-group vs. out-group

This approach focuses on two way relationship between leader and members. According to this theory leader develops an exchange relationship with the members and this affects the decisions, responsibilities and performance of subordinates. Leaders divide their followers between an in group and an out group and reward those they want a closer relationship with.

6 Inspirational approaches to leadership

6.1 What are the characteristics of charismatic leaders (see exhibit 12-3, page 375)? How charismatic leaders influence their followers (e.g., vision statement)? What are the dark sides of charismatic leadership?

Charismatic leaders are the leaders who are able to persuade the followers through a charming vision. Such leaders articulate that vision well. Such leaders influence followers through the promise of an attractive vision and skill of presenting it. Unfortunately charismatic leadership has a darker side. Leader may use his charisma to peruse personal goals rather than organisational goals.

6.2 Transformation leadership vs. transactional leadership; study exhibit 12-4 on page 378 and learn about characteristics of transactional and transformational leaders, also learn about how transformational leaders influence their followers

Set roles and goals are created by transactional leaders and they make processes for the followers to achieve these goals. Transformational leaders inspire change by motivating followers to rise above their personal goals. They influence through articulation of a vision

6.3 Transformational leadership in the context of small and complex organizations

Transformational leadership is more effective in smaller firms as the leader can personally interact with employees and motivate them. In a complex structure the leader cannot interact with all employees resulting in impediment to open interaction and decision making.

7.  Leadership and Trust

7.1 The three types of trust: deterrence-based; knowledge-based; and identification-based.

Deterrent based trust is based on fear of loosing certain advantage. Knowledge based trust is based on predictability of the behaviour of a person resulting from continuous interaction. Identification trust is based on an emotional connect between two people.

7.2 Learn about the basic principles of trust (i.e., trust leads to trust, trust can be regained)

Trust is an important component of leadership. Followers trust leaders because of their vision. However, one mistake can lead to loss of trust. Trust can be rebuilt by admission of mistake and responsibility taking.

7.3 The relationship between trust and leadership

Followers need to trust the leader so that they can believe in his vision. Leader can inculcate trust through honesty, integrity and truthfulness.

8 Learn about servant leadership 

The wellbeing and growth of the followers is the focus of servant leaders. He goes beyond his self-interest and creates opportunities for the followers.

9 Who are mentors and protégés? What are the career and psychosocial functions of mentoring relationship

Mentor is an employee who guides an untrained new employee. Mentor has a higher experience. The new employee is known as protégée. The mentor protégée relationship involves career growth of protégée; coaching and providing exposure. Psychological functions involve counselling, sharing personal experiences etc.

10 What are the substitutes for and neutralizers of leadership

Certain theorists suggest that proper training and experience of followers renders leadership irrelevant. Abilities and professional orientation of subordinates can also neutralize leadership.

11 How to find and create effective leaders: selecting and training leaders

Leadership training is a method of creating effective leaders. Managers can be trained to be effective leaders by giving training on analytical and behavioural skills.

12 Global and management implications 

All organisations need able leadership to run global organisations. Hence, management should hire people for top positions who have transformational qualities.

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