How Obstacle in Logistics that Impacts the Effectiveness of GPS Technology in Managing Logistic Operation in Toll Global Express?
Effectiveness of GPS technology
Broda, and Baxter, (2012) claimed that the application of the GPS technology in logistics operations helps n improving the operational effectiveness. The innovation of the GPS technology has provided significant benefit to the logistics business by providing enhanced security, faster transportation, and business processes. The GPS services allow the business employees as well as the customer with the ability to track the exact location of the trucks and goods in transition. Verma, and Bhatia, (2013) stated that this process provides assurance to the customer that their package and goods will be provided in said time. Therefore, the GPS technology has made the customers be more trustworthy and reliable to the service providers or logistics operators. Furthermore, the business operators have become more accountable and responsible regarding the timely delivery and safety of the goods through the tracking of GPS technology. According to Hebblewhite, and Haydon, (2012), the application of the GPS technology has provided the logistics companies to have complete transparency and control over the status and position of the trucks. Therefore, any misplaced, delayed or stolen goods or trucks are updated to the business organization in real time providing them to redesign and formulate the business process according to the current situation. Djuknic, and Richton, (2015) cited that the communication between the drivers and coordination have been improved through the GPS technology. In addition to that, the implementation of the GPS technology in the help in tracking the exact location of the employees and trucks during the transits. This provides effective and efficient management and monitoring of the employees as well as the goods that are being delivered by the logistics business.
Managing logistic operations
The application of the GPS technologies in the logistics operations assists in enhancing the transportation and logistics operations. Moeglein, and Krasner, (2014) showed that in logistics operations, deals with the coordination between the employees and drivers in order to deliver the goods in exact locations and time. The GPS technology enhances the communication coordination between the business and customers. Tracking of the trucks and updating the location to the customer helps in providing the location of the goods in real time. On the other hand, in the case of any change in location or time by the customer during the time of transit helps in easy accommodating the new requirements (Hebblewhite, & Haydon, 2012). According to Lee, Tewolde, and Kwon, (2014), the implementation of the GPS technologies assists in managing and monitoring the goods as well as the trucks to provide the customer with transparency and satisfaction through the services. Sandelowski, (2014) claimed that managing the logistics in one of the most significant needs for managing the transport. Sharpe, and Lindsley, (2016) cited that one-fourth of the total cost is associated with the transportation and logistics operations. Carrying out the particular route for delivering the goods is a challenge to the logistics operations in order to save the fuel cost. The various parameters like amount of goods, delivery location and type of trucks are dependent on estimating the accurate route for providing cost efficient services. Therefore, Moeglein and Krasner, (2014) claimed that the integrating the GPS technology provided the operators with the efficient information about the transit and controlling the route of the transit from remote locations.
Takhar-Lail and Ghorbani, (2015) cited that the application the appropriate process of the research methodology assist in revealing the detail concepts and theories of the undertaken topic. In addition to that, Finseth et al., (2014) claimed that the detailed process of the research methodology assists in gaining underlying facts and data relevant to the study.
4.2. Analysis of the problem
The process followed for carrying out the logistics operations at Toll Global Express are currently facing various issues and challenges for meeting up with the customer satisfaction while sustaining in the competitive market. The implementations of advanced technologies like the GPS system have the potential to improve the operational efficiency at TGE.
4.3. Research Paradigm- Interpretative
According to Terrell (2012), the application of the theoretical and philosophical framework for implementing the different laws, procedures for conducting the research is defined as a research paradigm. On a contrary, Finley (2014) showed that the research paradigm comprises of the different agreement and beliefs used by the researchers for addressing the research problems in an undertaken study. The three significant dimensions of the paradigm are methodology, epistemology, and ontology.
On the other hand, Vannini (2015) showed that three distinct philosophies could be characterized in research paradigm namely critical postmodernism, constructive interpretive and positivism.
In this particular study, the analysts have selected the application of the constructive interpretive research paradigm. The application of the interpretive paradigm has allowed the analyst in evaluating the undertaken topic with conceptual and social understanding. In addition to that, the interpretivist paradigm has provided in analyzing the topic while evaluating the previous studies and ideas of previous research. In addition to that, the applications of the qualitative methods like interviews, case study and observation have provided better analysis of the undertaken topic.
Unit of Analysis
Higginbottom and Liamputtong (2015) cited that the “unit of analysis” can define as the significant entity that has been considered for the analysis of undertaken topic. Moreover, Guercini (2014) claimed that the units of analysis could be comprised of any social artifacts, official documents, social organization, and a group of people, legal documents, and others. In this particular study, the analyst has considered the various journals and study from previous researchers for evaluating the effectiveness of GPS system at TGE.
Selection Criteria of Research Methods
Research Philosophy: According to Christ (2014), the appropriate application of the research philosophy allows the researcher in gaining detailed information relevant to the undertaken topic. For the evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation of the GPS technology in the logistics operations, the analysis has selected the application of Positivism Philosophy. The application of the Positivism philosophy allows in revealing the underlying facts and hidden information; for the selection of the GPS technology for sustaining in the competitive market. In addition to that, due to the time constraint of the study, the applications of the other process of philosophy were completely discarded in this study.
Research Approach: Gandhi and Sharma (2014) cited that the proper application of the appropriate Research Approach assists in revealing the required format of the selected study. In this present study, the analysis has chosen the application of Deductive Research Approach. According to Chatha, Butt and Tariq (2015), the application of the deductive approach focuses evaluating the concepts and theories of GPS technologies in logistics along with data collection and analysis. Since, in this present study, no new theories are introduced, the researcher has eliminated the application of the inductive approach.
Research Design: Nayar and Stanley (2014) defined that the research design explains the pattern and framework required for collecting and evaluating the data relevant to the undertaken topic. Due to the cross-sectional characteristic of the undertaken study, the analysts have selected Descriptive Design. The application of the descriptive design allowed in gaining relevant information of the particular events with a detailed description.
4.6. Development of Study Categories
In this present study, the author has selected the application of mixed category comprising qualitative and qualitative methods for evaluating the various obstacle that impacts the effectiveness of integrating GPS in Toll Global Express.
4.7. Data Collection and Analysis
4.7.1. Selection Criteria for data analysis techniques
For the data analysis of the selected research topic, the author has selected the use of secondary data sources for obtaining and evaluating the “Obstacle in Logistics that Impacts the Effectiveness of GPS Technology in Managing Logistic Operation in Toll Global Express”. The application of the qualitative data assist the author in reviewing and analyzing the statistical data obtained by the various researcher prior to this particular study. Moreover, through the use of secondary data, the author has conducted a qualitative analysis through the acknowledgement of the various issues related to the implementation of the GPS technology in Toll Global Express. In addition to that, the use of the secondary data helps the analysist in interpreting the result according to the need of the author. In this particular study, the author has collected relevant data and information from open sources including books, journals and paper on the similar topic of the current research.
According to Chatha, Butt, and Tariq, (2015), the application of the appropriate data analysis methodology and techniques helps in providing in-depth understanding and evaluation of the undertaken topic. For evaluating the effectiveness of introducing GPS technology in the logistics operations of TGE the analyst has collected and followed a detailed process of data collection. The analyst has selected only the secondary data sources for evaluating the undertaken topic. In addition to that, for the analysis of the secondary data the author has used the qualitative data analysis techniques for integrating the theoretical concept to the analysis process with the support of the relevant theories. Furthermore, the author has leveraged the application of the content analysis for this study. Finley, (2014) cited that the application of the content analysis ranges from interpretive, impressionistic to systematic textual analysis.
Higginbottom, and Liamputtong, (2015) pointed out that the content analysis can be roughly divided in to three major categories namely summative, directive and conventional. All the process of content analysis assist in evaluating the textual data from a predominant paradigm. In this particular study, the author has utilized the “Directed Content Analysis”. The application of the directed content analysis has assisted the author in conceptually extended the theory and validate the conceptual framework from the existing theory. Since, this particular study is limited to the application of the secondary data, the author has rejected the use of summative or conventional content analysis process.
The research methodology chapter in this presents study defines the particular process and procedures that need to be conducted for efficiently evaluating the research topic. The application of the appropriate tools and techniques mentioned in this particular chapter helps in in-depth analysis of the undertaken chapter.
The application of the data analysis chapter in this particular study is used for the evaluation of the effectiveness of introducing GPS Technology in Managing Logistic Operation in Toll Global Express. In this particular chapter, the analyst has utilized the data analysis methods of qualitative analysis for the evaluation of the study. According to Higginbottom and Liamputtong (2015), the application of the data analysis assisted the author in integrating the theories of the undertaken topic in the practical representation of data analysis. Vannini, (2015) claimed that the application of the secondary data comprises of various disadvantages like the uncertainty in ensuring the validity of the data collected from the secondary sources. Apart from that, the data obtained through previous researches have the chances of data manipulation or lacks genuineness. A large scale of electronics information has been gathered from online sources; internet. For obtaining relevant data, the author has considered only the peer viewed journal, articles and books relevant to the undertaken topic from free online resources. Apart from that, the analysist has also gathered sensitive and relevant information from various books available in university library.
According to Christ, (2014), the application of the data editing in the secondary form of information is essential for verifying the consistency and accuracy of the obtained data. The secondary data obtained from the online sources needs to be edited, organized and processed before the conducting the analysis of the data. In order to appropriately analyses the obtained data, the author needs to convert the huge amount of data in simple and comprehensible form. According to Gandhi, and Sharma, (2014), the application of the data editing in the analysis provided genuineness and allows easy management of the collected information.
The secondary data that the author has obtained in the study was gathered by other authors in different purpose and time that might not be relevant to the study. There is a great possibility of duplication, compensation and omission in the previous data. In this particular study, for eliminating unsuitability, inadequacy, inconsistency and inaccuracy the author has performed the test on reliability, adequacy and suitability while verifying the source of data.
Higginbottom, and Liamputtong, (2015) defined data screening as an appropriate process for ensuring the obtained secondary data are appropriate and excluded of errors. Prior to the data analysis process the author has conducted the data screening procedure with the application of statistical tools. In addition to that, the data screening is done for proving data validity and reliability to the gathered information for providing data analysis techniques. Chatha, Butt and Tariq (2015) cited that the data screening provides data integrity and eliminate the noise or in the existing secondary data.
In this particular study, the author has rejected the secondary sources of data with improper measuring unit and question on the validity. In addition to that, for ensuring the proper and standard evaluation of the undertaken topic the author has considered the recent journal not exceeding before 2012. Furthermore, the author has evaluated the chance of bias in the previous journals and rejected the data with unbiased analysis.
Formulation of Categories
According to Terrell, (2012), the secondary data can be briefly formed into two major categories, namely qualitative and quantitative. The qualitative data deals with the observation and description of the various theories and framework obtained from previous researches. On the other hand, Takhar-Lail, and Ghorbani, (2015) cited that the quantitative data provided the numeric value and statistical result obtained within the previous conducted researches. The evaluation of the “Obstacle in Logistics that Impacts the Effectiveness of GPS Technology in Managing Logistic Operation in Toll Global Express”, the author has considered the application of the qualitative data for data analysis part. The applications of the qualitative data analysis procedure have assisted the author in interpreting the undertaken topic in a detailed manner.
Analysis and Results
Effectiveness of GPS technology on logistics operations
Shamsuzzoha et al., (2013) have defined the logistics operation as one of the significant process involving the planning, implementation and controlling the effective flow of the services, goods and information between two sources. Toll Global Expresses deals with the logistics operations all over Australia (Ivanova, & Gallasch, 2015). On the other hand, Clausen, De Bock, and Lu, (2016) have simply defined the logistics as a significant process for ensuring the right product has reached on right location, in right time to the right customer. Therefore, it is essential to ensure customer satisfaction throughout all the processes used in logistics. The introduction and emergence of various new technologies has assisted the logistics service providers in improving the efficiency of their business. The significant objective of the toll global services is to deliver the services and products to the targeted customer in a timely manner (Kithiia, 2015). Ensuring the customer satisfaction is the main objective for the logistics operations. Moreover, Toll Global services operates all over Australia. Therefore, it is essential to deliver the perishable products to the customer within the allocated time period.
Popovic, and Habjan, (2012) pointed out that the implementation of the GPS technology in the logistics operations helps in increasing the efficiency of the management and business. Amna, (2013) claimed that the impact of the GPS technology has immeasurable impact on the logistics operations. Furthermore, Gupta, Mukerjee, and Singh, (2013) cited that the implementation of the GPS technology helps in improving the effectiveness of the business for meeting the requirements of the customers. The various effectiveness of the GPS technology for improving the operational management at Toll Global Services are discussed bellow.
Fleet Management: Munuzuri et al., (2012) cited that fleet of vehicles are the significant channel of operations in logistics. The GPS technology helps in tracking the location of the trucks in real time. Wang, (2012) claimed that the application of the GPS technology assist the business in having essential information about the delivery of the products, delivery time estimation up to dated. Zhang, Fang, and Huang (2014) explained that the continuous updating of the information about the location of the trucks and packages helps in having better control over and tremendous advantage in the competitive market. Through this the logistics service providers ensure complete monitoring the speed and location of the vehicles. In addition to that the GPS technology assist in tracking and monitoring of the fleet in an unobtrusive manner. Furthermore, Greiner, (2015) cited that fleet management also helps in accommodating any business requirements or delivery with minimum cost and effort.
Cost-Benefit Assessment: McNamara, Linton, and Mikhail, (2014) have explained in this paper that the tracking of the fleet in the logistics operations helps in improving the profitability of the business. The expense of the fuel is related and unavoidable with the logistics business. According to Jhawar, and Garg, (2016), the GPS technology along with fleet tracking facility helps in optimizing the cost of the fuel expenses. Li, and Huo, (2016) showed that the along with GPS technology, the business operatives can monitor the fleet on route required for delivering the packages only. Furthermore, the GPS technology helps in providing the shortest route to deliver the packages to a selected location thus reducing the cost of transportation. De Cantis et al., (2016) claimed that with the application of the GPS technology the company can monitor the drivers on the selected route only while checking the fuel cost.
Improved Efficiency: The GPS technology automatically generates huge amount of data providing the accurate location and position of the fleet delivering the packages. Prasanna, and Hemalatha, (2012) explained that the data generated through the GPS technology is accurate to the position of the fleet. In addition to that, the integration of the GPS technology with the computer of the vehicle provided various possibility in increasing the efficiency of operational management. According to Klumpp, Clausen, and ten Hompel, (2013), the real-time information about the position of the vehicle allows the logistics provided in acknowledging the progress of the delivery. Moreover, the GPS technology provides the driver with the accurate route and shortest path for all the packages in the particular route. Therefore, the GPS technology significantly reduces the time for efficiently delivering the packages to the right location at right time. Xu, Deng, and Ren, (2014) pointed out that the with the application of the GPS technology it becomes easier to track the any particular vehicle. Therefore, recovery of the stolen or damages vehicle in logistics is made easier with the GPS.
Enhanced Customer Satisfaction: Radoicic et al., (2013) cited that the enhancing the customer satisfaction is the key for achieving success in the logistics operations. The integration o the GPS technology allows the customer in providing real time information about the delivery of their packages. Nikolaenko, and Shugaley, (2014) showed that the through the GPS technology, the logistics service providers allows transparency in their operations. On the other hand, Fernando, and Samarasekera, (2016) claimed that the GPS updated the customer with the real-time location of the packages. Any delay of early delivery of the packages are automatically updated to the customers. Kithiia, (2015) stated that the continuous information about the packages provided the customer with estimated delivery thus enhancing the satisfaction with the services.
The existing logistics system of the Toll Global Services, cannot effectively track the real-time location of the operations with manual monitoring of the operational (Ivanova, and Gallasch, (2015). Hence it can be easily observed that the absence of effective tracking reduces the control over the system. Popovic, and Habjan, (2012) have stated that the absence of effective tracking mechanism reduces the real-time information about the up-streaming operation that is being carried out at the site, according to which the transportation can be planned which can effectively reduce the time and the cost of transit. In the similar situation Amna, (2013) have also presented a similar view regarding the down streaming of the packages where the transit time between the main delivery system and the staffs lacks co-ordination due to which a great amount of time is wasted for delivering the materials.
Gupta, Mukerjee, and Singh, (2013) state that the present system of taking a consignment and delivering to its destination suffers various operational constraints which make the process costlier. The packages are sent to the destination using various means which are rail, road, air and water. For this purpose, the sorting has to be done in a time efficient manner. According to Wang, (2012) the effective sorting strategies waste a huge time is wasted due to lack of coordination and information among them. A similar thought is shared by Zhang, Fang, and Huang, (2014) who state that, the lack of implementation of modern technology in goods transit system has kept the system blind as real time data is hardly obtained, which affects the visibility of the system, which in turn affects the services of the organization.
In order to maintain the competitive advantage in the market, the Toll Global Express has engaged in the implementation of GPS technology in their logistics. With the change in a technological factor, the customers have high expectations in terms of quality and effectiveness of the services. The GPS technology provides the distributors, suppliers, and customer with the visibility and accountability of the services provided by TGE. The efficiency of the operations at TGE is dependent on the time needed by the employees to gather information about an item. Furthermore, the operations efficiency also includes sending the item to the required destination within allocated time. The integration of the GPS technology will allow the TGE employee to have complete control over the transit of the item. The real-time monitoring and control over the transit assist in improving the operation efficiency in the logistics of TGE.
In addition to that, the GPS services will allow the employees with the continuous update about the item location that will allow the employees to remain up to date and improve the working efficiency. The logistics operations at TGE are focused on proving visualization and transparency in the transit process to its customers. The implementation of the GPS technology will allow the customer and employees to view the particulars of the items that have been delivering through TGE. In the existing procedure of operations, the employees need to outsource the data and maintain continuous collaboration with the suppliers for updating with the location of the items. Toll Global Service requires better planning, management and faster shipping of the items for gaining competitive advantage. The GPS technology provides execution system, data collection, and visibility of the data and effective record of the possible changes in the items that help in reducing the operation cost considering the long-term business.
In this particular research, the scope of the study was not evaluated to potential level due to various limitations in the study. The future study will focus on evaluating the functionality of the tracking system for improving the efficiency of operations in logistics. Moreover, in the future, the study will be conducted on
organization for evaluating the effectiveness of the GPS technology in logistics operations in details.
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