In this contemporary world, both nationally and internationally the health and safety issues of the employees and workers are the major concerns to every organization irrespective of any business they are attached with. Achalli, Shetty & Babu (2012) commented on the essential fact that measures as well as strategies are thereby designed and taken in order to minimize, control, prevent as well as eliminate the occupational risks and hazards. In order to keep pace with the modern technology and economic conditions of the organization, several organizations are keen to make several improvements within the workplace. As per mentioned by Bas (2014) in order to safeguard these workers and employees from workplace hazards and accidents, Occupational Health and Safety Act came into existence. As per the law, organization is bound to take safety measures to take care of the health and safety of the employees and workers.
Moreover, according to the outlook of Ceballos, Gong & Page (2015) the organizations have a management team that are totally concerned about the occupational risks and health issues. The management team thereby keeps a hawk eye to value the safety within the workplace along with also take measures for prevention of any kind of occupational violence within the workplace. Apart from this, Bhatt & Seema (2012) also commented that the employees and workers are also given sufficient trainings regarding the occupational safety and also are trained to face these risks and accidents. This also helps in facing the risks to some considerable extent. Even the management also is in a continuous process for improvement, expansion and updating of the safety measures within the organization.
This assignment will be dealing with the occupational health and Safety, OHAS Act, kinds of occupational hazards and requirements of occupational health and safety measures. In addition to this, management of occupational health, operational measures and steps taken for prevention occupational hazards will also be discussed vividly.
Derickson et al. (2015) commented on the essential piece of information that it is very natural that when employees and workers are working within an organization, mishap or accidents can happen. This is because; it involves mal functioning of any machinery or chemicals that may lead to severe accidents within the workplace. It is quite natural that working with heavy machineries in a manufacturing and production organization, working in a laboratory with chemicals, or in any organization where fire can break out due to short-circuiting can lead to huge accidents. So, as per opined by Findsen (2015) occupational health and safety measures need to be taken sincerely and positively for the welfare of the employees and workers. It is a major responsibility of the organization for its employees and workers and it is bound to maintain the responsibility to its maximum extent.
According to the outlook and opinion of Ford & Tetrick (2011) implementations and improvements of the measures are one of the major concerns of the organization apart from gaining profits. Both nationally and internationally, it is now days a matter of concern and hence organizations take it seriously as an inseparable part. It is even the responsibility of the organization to see, check; maintain the systems, machineries, wirings and every property of the organization that the workers, labors and employees use on the everyday basis. As per mentioned by Guidotti (2013) in every organization it is mandatory to keep a strong management that is only concerned with the occupational health and safety of the employees, labors and workers. A successful organization is always concerned about it and hence this also motivates the employees to work with more productivity.
On the other hand, Ghosh (2013) also commented that workplace violence which is also a part of occupation health and hazard also needs strong hands for the welfare of the workers and employees. There were organizations where the labors and employees are beaten and hurt for wrong outputs and not giving proper outputs. So, as opined by Johnson (2011) it should be acknowledged that the organization needs to have both responsibility and authority to prevent all kinds of violence, torture and risks within the organization. Prevention of these helps the organization and the workplace a healthy place to work in for the employees, labors and workers.
As per commented by Gibson (2014) the work place violence or occupational violence can be referred to as incidents where the employees are abused, assaulted as well as threatened related to their work. This ranges from verbal abuse, threats and even physical assaults that may sometimes lead to job related deaths. This kind of behavior is a matter of concern since it affects the health as well as safety of the employees. There are certain behaviors that are related to work that easily depicts the employees are facing occupational violence. As commented by Lu & Lu (2011) the behaviors are biting, scratching, hitting, spitting, pushing shoving, grabbing, tripping and kicking. Other than this, the employees also face occupational violence through verbal threats, threatening through armed forces and weapons and even through sexual assault.
Locally, nationally and internationally in each and every organization it is now days a growing concern for the welfare of the employees. Oliver & Foscarini (2013) commented on the essential fact that even the organizations have taken strong steps against the molestation of the employees at the workplace. It is the responsibility of the organizations to maintain the peace and harmony within the workplace. This is because; the employees and workers working in the organization totally rely on the management policy of the organization. Popoola (2013) also had opined strategically that the employees are also trained about facing all these kinds of violence within the workplace. Other than this, it is statistically seen that nearly 2 million of the American workers are sufferers from the occupational violence in the workplace.
Occupational Safety and Health or OSHA came into existence in 28th April, 1971. According to the outlook of Rusch, Frazier & Atkins (2014) it is necessary for the organization to have a sustainable and healthy workforce within the organization in order to meet up the local, national as well as international level of prestige and position. In US, it is also see that in every two hours, a US worker is silenced forever since they have faced occupational accidents. It is also seen statistically that nearly more than 1millon employees face injuries and nearly 2.3 million of the workers suffer from ill health. Moreover, as per Salisbury (2014) it is also statistically seen that more than 25,000 individuals lose their jobs every year just because of ill health and injury. The records are thereby kept by the management team of the organization in order to see their improvement in their work. Moreover, as commented by Scheid (2013) the occupational health and safety are the major and essential issues that need to be kept in mind of each of the organization for a sustainable growth.
As per the Act, the objectives of the act are detection of any kind of work hazards that are related to health and risks within the organization. According to the outlook of Snell, Eagle & Van Aerde (2014) periodic inspection of the workplace is done for discovering any kind of hazard and unsecured place within the organization. The simple methods and the techniques along with educating the workers for safe conduction of work are taught to the employees and workers. Apart from this, Scott (2014) also commented that the occupational hygiene also includes the study of toxicology, chemical as well as physical behavior o air contamination as well as designing and evaluation of ventilation systems. So, occupational hygienists are solely responsible for environmental monitoring as well as detection of any kind of exposed risks that may be faced by the employees at the time of working.
Moreover, in order to protect the employees and workers from any kind of occupational violence, OSHA Act has taken special steps for protecting the employees and workers to the maximum extent. As commented by Salisbury (2014) the law states that the organization if fails to ensure and maintain the employees safety within and outside the work place within the working hours, then strong legal steps can be taken against the organization. As per the law, it is the sole responsibility of the organization to maintain a safe and secured workplace within the organization. This makes the employees and workers feel safe while within the organization and hence failure of any rules and policy will lead to workplace violence. In addition to this, Terrell, Hartnett & Marcus (2011) also opined that the Act also encourages the employees and workers to report as well as log any kinds of threat, violence and hazards the employees face within the workplace. Moreover, the organization also needs to have first aid and safety box within the organization for the workers and employees. Other than this, the victims of occupational violence also need to report the incidents to the local police station immediately.
Willey (2014) commented that while working within the organization, each and every labor faces some abnormalities and problems while working in dangerous and uncanny situations. Each and every organization thereby faces some kind of problems and is sometimes working in a situation that is totally unfavorable to them. As per mentioned by Yu et al. (2013) the occupational hazards can be of physical hazards, chemical hazards, biological, mechanical, psychosocial, construction, agricultural hazards etc. These kind of hazards not only the affects the employee’s and workers life but also makes them impaired through hands, limbs, eyes, ears etc. In this context, the researcher has discussed about several occupational hazards that are discussed below-
Physical Hazards- According to the outlook of Yusuff (2014) physical hazards take into account the physical hazards are the common sources of injury that occurs within the organization. These hazards occur from heat, cold, light, noise, vibration, ultraviolet radiation as well as ionizing radiation. These are the unavoidable injuries that the employees and workers face to certain extent that differ the degrees of abnormalities. Zanko & Dawson (2011) also commented that heat exposures takes into account the heat exhaustion, heat cramps, heat stroke as well as increased fatigue. Moreover, the heavy industries also take into account the furnaces, boilers and ovens that radiate huge quantity of heat giving rise to hypothermia. This therefore makes the employees work in a very stressful way and even causes impairment to ears and eyes. According to the opinion of Abdulloeva & Eyler (2013) the sound of heavy machineries also causes permanent hearing impairment. Apart from this, excessive cold within the workplace also causes rise to breathing problems, asthma etc. The workers exposed to excessive brightness and light also face vision and visual problems. Continuous as well as excessive brightness gives rise to visual fatigue and blurred vision.
In addition to this, noise is another health hazard that affects the permanent impairment of the eyes. Moreover, Bagaria & Sharma (2015) commented that continuous exposure to the vibration within the organization that is caused due drills and hammers also causes health hazards of the workers and employees. This makes the rupture of the fine blood vessels of fingers and may lead to white fingers. This leads to impairment of the hands of the employees after a certain period of time which leads to the incapability of working of the employees. Moreover, as commented by Berton & Novi (2012) this continuous exposure also produces injuries of the hands, shoulders, elbows as well as joints making a person physically challenged after a time being. As a result, the employees find themselves physically challenged after some period of time and is compelled to leave the organization due to physical incapability.
According to Byron et al. (2014) the ultraviolet radiation and ionized are both harmful to the workers and employees. These cause intense conductivities, keratitis, redness of eye along with pain and several kinds of skin diseases. Even sometimes, the vision gets totally blurred after sometimes and the employees and workers are compelled to leave the organization due to their physical impairment. Moreover, as commented by Chesney & Lindeke (2012) the ionized radiation that is most common in the medicine and laboratory based industries are equally dangerous to the employees and workers. This is because; the radiations from the radio –isotopes likely phosphorus32 and cobalt60 affect the employee’s and workers to the maximum extent. The tissues of bone marrows are dried up, leukemia, ulceration, sterility and even depilation and skin cancers are caused that take away the lives of the employees and workers (Akpan, 2011). Continuous exposure of the employees to these radiations causes diseases and even leads to death of the employees.
Chemical hazards- From the outlook and viewpoint of Gonzalez (2011) the chemical hazards are also the causes of occupation health diseases. The organizations those are dealing with chemicals always experiments with new as well as complex chemicals. Continuous exposure of these chemicals causes occupational hazards that cause the life risks of the employees. According to the viewpoint of Shadab (2014) the chemicals include the allergic compounds and other compounds that causes skin diseases, eczema, ulcers, cancers as well as rashes and allergies. Other than this, continuous inhalation of the dusts causes problems in the respiratory system and hence also causes cardio-vascular blockage and infection in lungs. Even sometimes it may lead to pneumoconiosis, silicosis and anthracosis. As opined by Chesney & Lindeke (2012) the chemicals such as aromatic nitro as well as amino compounds like TNT along with aniline that are absorbed through skin and have ill effects on the body. Often, it is also seen that that the particles that are less than 5 microns are inhaled into the lungs and thereby stays over there. This respirable dust is one of the major causes of pneumoconiosis.
Other than this the dusts can be easily classified into organic and inorganic dusts along with insoluble and soluble dusts. As per commented by ElSaadawy et al. (2014) the inorganic dusts include mica, asbestos and coal and the organic dusts include jute and cotton. The soluble dusts are not that harmful and hence get dissolves into the system that is later excreted and eliminated from the body through metabolism. But Akpan (2011) contradicted that the insoluble dusts stays in the lungs permanently and causes life threatening diseases. This kind of prolonged exposure of the employees and workers into such kind of dusts and chemicals causes death and serious ailments. Chileshe & Dzisi (2012) also commented that gases such as carbon monoxide, cyanide gases, chloroform, and ether. Trichloroethylene, coal gas etc are dangerous within the organization. Other than this, the harmful metals such as arsenic, beryllium, cobalt, manganese, phosphorus, mercury, chromium, zinc etc are the chemical intoxications that require medical treatment of the employees and workers. According to the outlook of Ford & Wiggins (2012) that these metals and harmful gases causes several skin diseases, respiratory problems as it also may damage the eyes and face of the employees and workers. Moreover, improper washing of hands and in-taking the food with those unwashed hands also causes food poisoning.
Biological and Psychosocial Hazards- As per commented by Safty (2014) the biological hazards as well as psychosocial hazards are also found in general in the workplace. The workers and employees those are working with the animal products are generally prone towards biological hazards. This is because, the diseases that are within the animals are easily transmitted to the people and hence they are also infected from the contaminated animals. According to Shadab (2014) the infection is spread through air and directly affects the employees and workers. The employees and workers are prone to the diseases those are suffering from the infections that are spread through contacts, blood etc. As a result; this may lead to the death of the workers. In addition to this, the psychosocial hazards also arise due to failure while adapting psychosocial environment.
There are several factors that affect it such as frustration, insecurity in job, emotional tension, degraded human relationship, cultural backgrounds and social habits. Other than this, Ilesanmi, Omotoso & Falana (2015) also commented that the different other factors such as education, expectations from other employees within the organization also causes psychosocial hazards. The hostility, aggressiveness, depression, alcoholism, drug intakes and sickness absenteeism affects the mental health of the employees. These factors kill the employees and workers from inside and as a result they later become patients of psychology. Randolph (2015) opined that as a result the employees are much more prone towards alcohols, smoking and etc. This for a time being helps the employees to stay stable but at the end of the day, the employees are majorly harmed from these ill habits. The lungs, heart, liver, pancreas of the workers and employees degrade which in a long run kills the person. Apart from thus, that excessive work pressure also causes stress to the minds of the people which therefore results in psychosocial hazards. Other than this, it also causes rapid ageing, hypertension, peptic ulcer and heart diseases.
Mechanical hazards- Ford & Wiggins (2012) commented on the essential fact that the mechanical hazards are also the sources of occupational hazards. It has been statistically seen that nearly 20% of the employees and workers meet accidents due to mechanical faults. From the viewpoint of Gonzalez (2011) the mechanical hazards are generally found in the organizations where it mainly deals with manufacturing and production. Machines are thereby common in the workplace and hence chances of meeting accidents from these machines are also natural. In order to protect these kinds of accidents, it is necessary to oil as well as maintain the machines and the electric lines occasionally.
As commented by Ilesanmi, Omotoso & Falana (2015) there are several factors that cause mechanical hazards in the workplace that causes the death as well as impairment and physically challenged of the workers, labors and employees. These are the mal functioning of the machineries, along with sudden beak down of the machineries, as well as sudden breakdown of fire. Moreover chocking in the pipelines, compartmental blockages, ill sewage system and blockage in the ventilation system causes mechanical accidents in the workplace. Other than this, as per commented by Shadab (2014) accidents may also occur from short circuiting and breakdown of fire from it. The electrical injuries can be segmented into 4 categories such as fatal electrocution, burns, electric shocks and falls due to coming in contact with high voltage power connections. All these incidents within the organization cause fatal accidents that affect the workers and employees to maximum affect which may also sometimes lead to death.
According to the outlook and opinion of Goldman, Koster & Schottinger (2013) occupational hazards causes fatal accidents and even may cause death of the workers and employees. As a result, there are certain requirements of health and safety measures that need to be taken within the organization. This is to ensure the health and safety of the employees those results in maintaining a good and safe working culture within the organization. Achalli, Shetty & Babu (2012) commented on the essential fact that it is essential for the organization to implement organizational health and safety norms within the business plans. This is a good experience for the organization as well as for the employees that maintains the safety of both. In this context, the researcher aims in discussing about the essentialities of the safety measures that need to be taken within the organization for the workers and employees. The dynamic management strategies also need to be developed as well as implemented for ensuring the coherence and relevancy within the organization. The requirements of the occupational safety are given as below-
Ensure a safety workplace- As per commented by Flores (2015) the organizational safety is an important issue of every organization operating locally or nationally or internationally. This is because; it makes the workplace a safe place where the employees can work safely within the organization. Other than this, the organization aims in making the workplace a better place where the employees aim in getting a safe workplace. As mentioned by Guidotti (2013) the employees are prone towards various kinds of hazards in the workplace that arises from the mal functioning of the machineries, electric lines etc. other than this, working with various chemicals and animals also causes life-threatening diseases to the employees and labors. Randolph (2015) commented on the important piece of information that as a result, this causes fatal accidents and even leads to death of the labors and workers. For avoiding these things, the organization will give safety measures to the customers to the maximum extent. This will be preventing the employees to the maximum extent and hence will also be minimize the maximum ill effects and causes of workplace accidents.
To increase productivity- Guidotti (2013) commented on the important piece of information that the employees and workers find it safe in the organization if they see that the organization is safe in its operation. This makes the employees and workers satisfied and happy from inside and they tend to work more for higher productivity. According to the outlook of Randolph (2015) the workplace can be easily made safe and organized if they see that the machineries are working well and are also oiled and maintained periodically. Along with this, the electric lines also need to be checked properly and systematically. Other than this, the productivity of the people is also increased to considerable extent. This is because, the employees will be happy and well as content that will increase the productivity and also will affect the profit of the organization. As mentioned by Ilesanmi, Omotoso & Falana (2015) the better the workplace of the organization, the more the employees will be focused on the productivity of the organization and this will result in higher gain in profits. Moreover, this will also ensure the organization in occupying a prestigious position in the contemporary market and hence employees will love working in the organizations.
To motivate the employees- According to the outlook of Goldman, Koster & Schottinger (2013) the essential steps also need to be taken for the safety purposes of the employees within the workplace. The employees therefore are motivated through the healthy policies and politics of the organization. The better and safe the workplace will be, the more the employees will be motivated to the maximum extent. In order to in motivate the employees; the organization needs to ensure that the workplace has to be safe and sound for the employees to work freely. These measures help in making appropriate responses from the employees to the organization. The several policies as well as polices help in effectively handling the services in the most hazardous situations. Flores (2015) also commented on the essential fact that in order to motivate the employees, each and every organization aims to give a good and a healthy working place to the workers and employees. This therefore gives a safety feeling in the minds of the employees and the employees feel self content and satisfied that leads to the organizational success to the considerable extent.
In this contemporary world, each and every organization aims in providing healthy and a safe workplace to the employees. As commented by Achalli, Shetty & Babu (2012) the organizations aim in having their own management team that is totally concerned about different kinds of occupational hazards within the organization and also take the steps in maintaining the occupational health. It is one of the major concerns of the organization that takes into account the occupational health and thereby also promotes a healthy workplace. From the viewpoint of Safty (2014) this is done to ensure that the employees and workers working in the organization are safe and the organization has taken the responsibility of their safety. In this context, the researcher has explained the several steps taken by the management and the essentiality of the management regarding the occupational health.
According to the outlook and opinion of Guidotti (2013) the occupational health and safety measures are an increasingly popular method that is getting importance and popularity among several stakeholders. Different doctors and nurses are thereby appointed by the organization in order to take the safety measures of the employees those have faced accidents from occupational hazards. Other than this, as mentioned by Gonzalez (2011) the management style also helps in motivating the employees as well as keeping a healthy workplace within the organization. In addition to this, the management committee is set up within the work place that also encourages the involvement of the employees. Flores (2015) commented that the management of the organization is also focused on the analysis of the workplace safety. The hazard prevention and control of the organization also focuses on the program that helps in making goals and objectives of the organization
According to the outlook of Ford & Wiggins (2012) the prevention program of workplace violence is also encouraged and developed by the management of the organization. This program has certain goals and objectives and also aims in preventing the violence in the workplace to the maximum extent. Berton & Novi (2012) also commented on the essential fact that the laws, policies, and regulations that is present within the management programs of the organization helps in taking care of the people to the maximum extent and hence helps in evaluation of the program. The requirements are clearly stated within the organizational preventive measures that help in making the workplace safe for the employees.
In addition to this, as per commented by Byron et al. (2014) the management team within the organization also analyses the workplace environment, machineries as well as electric lines. These are done on basis of periodic assessments and routines which helps in providing the employees and workers a better and healthy place for working. Moreover, as mentioned by Achalli, Shetty & Babu (2012) if any kind of hazards and violence if faced by the employees are reported to the management, it takes strong steps against it as well as also keeps a record of it. Moreover, keeping records of the incidents are analyzed later that helps in keeping a track of the organizational accidents.
The management has to take many measures while charting the safety and health policies in the workplace. Every organization has to see that they do not fall short in preventing risks at the workplace which might hamper the employees working and also the operations of the organizations (Markstrm & Karlsson 2012). The employers should analyze the job and also the worksite to prevent the hazards from happening. After the analysis of the worksite the management must take proper measures to avert the risks and threats. They should do the following to initiate the operational measures:
The best measure to alleviate any occupational hazards is to eradicate it or to bring up a safer practice of work. These substitutions may be hard to initiate in most environment but not difficult to initiate (Osazuwa-Peters, Azodo & Obuekwe, 2012). The operational controls are physical alterations which either eliminates the hazard from the workplace or to create a barrier between the hazard and the worker. In the workplaces where it is feasible there are multiple controls of operations which effectively can control or prevent the hazards of the workplace. These operational controls also include the following strategies:
The operational measures should be site specific and they should also be based on the identified hazards in the analysis of the worksite.
(Bas, 2014) pointed that the undesirable effect which work may have on health has severe consequences in regards to the economic and human cost not only for workers and the families of the workers but for the companies and the society also as a whole. So as to share the impacts of these effects EU has created a legal structure to prevent the risks and promote the safety and health measures at work (Siziya et al 2012).
The legislation of European Union compels the companies to initiate the social policies to focus on the human being as an individual so as to improve the workers well being while they do their job. The foundation of the requirements in these areas of prevention of risk in workplace is called framework directive; which offers a basis of reference for a sequence of some specific directives that will wrap every risks that is related to the safety and health at workplace. Besides these it also sets the obligations of the workers and their employers with the perspective of developing health and safety issues in workplace (Sirriyeh et al 2012).
A well put chart for the prevention of occupational hazards in the workplace is incorporated in an organization to protect the safety and health program, providing an efficient approach to decrease the hazard risks in the workplace (Achalli, Shetty, & Babu, 2012). The blocks of constructing the efficient prevention of the occupational hazards include:
It is to specify that the prevention of violence program at workplace must have clearly defined objectives and goals for averting the hazards in the workplace.
The rights and obligations for the prevention and protection from hazards at work are put on three groups:
The employer of any organization is obliged to ascertain that the safety and health of the workers in every aspect regarding their work and not anything can lessen this responsibility of the employer. The employer should take obligatory steps to protect the safety and health of the workers which also embraces the steps to avert the occupational hazards training and informing the staff and also setting up the important organizational framework to attain these aims (Slater et al 2012). Modifications by the employer should be made to take the alterations into account in the situations and try to develop the existing circumstances. Following are the obligations of the employers in occupational hazards:
The employees also have a great deal of responsibilities to avert risks at workplace so as to protect themselves and their co-workers. They should take the adequate training and information regarding any occupational hazards which is given by the employers (Wicks & Jamieson, 2014). They should comply and collaborate gently with the policies of the company regarding the health and safety measures. The following are laid down for them:
Proper use of the appliances, machineries, equipments, tools, etc.
Proper usage of the personal protective items which is supplied to them
They should not remove the devices of safety which is needed for some specific installations and machineries (Findsen, 2015).
They should immediately report the management regarding any threats or sudden danger at work and also of any inadequacy in the arrangements of the protection.
They should perform all the tasks which come with safety regulations and coordinate with their employers to keep their working environment safe from any kind of risks and threats.
The client should be responsible enough to take proper measures with the intention that the employers from any external security entities who are engaged in work in the company gets adequate data in accordance with the national laws or the policies, concerning the preventive and protective measures for both the establishment and the every post in the mentioned entity (Teclaw et al 2014).. The client should ensure that the workers from the external security firms have received proper instructions from the company regarding the risks on health and safety while they do their work with the client company. The following are important for the client to know:
In case of Client Company the employers of the entity should cooperate and coordinate in implementing the health, occupational hygiene and safety provisions seeing nature of the work.
They should organize their actions in protection, prevention and matters of occupational hazards.
They must inform each other in case of risks
They must also inform the respective co-workers in such matters which also includes informing the union head (Yusuff, 2014).
This assignment deals with the occupational hazards that can occur within the organization. The researcher has well mentioned about the occupational health and safety that prevents the occupational hazards to certain extent. There are various kinds of occupational hazards such as mechanical, chemical, physical, biological as well as psychosocial hazards. This helps in causing risks and accidents within the organization that causes impairment, physically challenged as well as death of the employees and workers. The several kinds of hazards also need to be solved immediately. Even the researcher has well explained the requirement and need of the safety issues within the organization for ensuring the safety of the employees. This is also done for better productivity as well as motivation of the employees. Other than this, the management team within the organization is set. This helps in periodic assessments of the work and also helps the employees whenever they need it. Any kind of violence and accidents are immediately reported to the management team for taking the needful steps. Other than this, the operational measures are also discussed that are taken by the organization for ensuring and maintain the safety within the organization. There are several steps taken by the organization for preventing and minimizing the occupational hazards within the organization.
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