Organizational behavior is a scientific approach applied to businesses to improve its efficiency. It is an approach that studies how people in an organization interact in a group. It is an approach to manage workers in an organization efficiently. It is the study of the impact of an individual behavior and culture on the groups and structures of people within an organization. It is the study of human behavior. It is divided in three levels that is micro level that studies the behavior of individuals in organizations, meso level that studies behavior of workers as a group and macro level that studies how organizations behave. There are various theories developed by various authors that help the organization improve its business efficiency (Miner 2015). The main purpose of studying organizational behavior is to understand the behavior of people at workplace because individuals often tend to behave differently in organization then outside. Various methods are used to evaluate and identify organizational behavior in various organizations. These include quantitative research, computer simulation, and qualitative research. There are various topics that can be studied in organization behavior. These include counterproductive work behavior, decision making, employee mistreatment, leadership, managerial roles, motivation and national culture and organizational culture. The attitude of people plays an essential role in organization as the efficiency depends on them itself. Workers are the important part of organization and decision making should depend on them also (DuBrin 2013). Management is an approach to manage people in an organization to accomplish the goals and objectives of the firm and so that the resources can be used efficiently and the work productivity increases. It is an act of manager to manage, control or direct work in workplace. There are various principles of management such as division of labor, specialization, cost reduction, leadership, human behavior and attitude, and knowledge and skills and motivation (Wagner and Hollenbeck 2014).
There are various organizational theories developed by various authors. There are various organizational theories developed by various authors. The three classical organizational theories are scientific management theory developed by Taylor, bureaucratic theory developed by Weber and administrative theory developed by Mooney and Reiley. The main aim of the classical organization theory was to specify the organizational structure, division of labor, specialization and the bureaucratic of hierarchy structure. The classical theories had some short comings. After which the neo classical organizational theory was developed. The main principles of neo classical approach were individual behavior, and participative management (Hatch and Cunliffe 2013). The main principle of scientific management theory developed by Taylor was to use the scientific knowledge in management. It stated that the workers should be allotted task in which it specializes. Reward and punishment should be used as method of motivation of employees. It uses the science rule of thumb in management process. The second theory is the Weber’s approach of bureaucratic management that emphasized on hierarchical power of structure of organization. The main principle of bureaucratic approach is predictability and stability, democracy, rationality and specialization. The third theory is organization theory that is stated by Henry Fayol. The main principle of administrative theory is planning, organizing, training, commanding and coordinating function. The modern approach of organizational behavior is system approach that was developed by Hungarian Biologist Ludwig Von Bertalanffy in the year 1928 but was applied in the organizations in the year 1981 (D’Adderio and Pollock 2014). The main principle of systems theory is to specify the all the components of an organization and change in any one variable will affect the other variable in an organization. The system of an organization is inter related to each other and is mutually dependent. The other modern theories of organization are socio-technical approach and contingency approach. The goals and the objectives of the organization according to the modern theories of organizational behavior are growth, stability and interaction of organization. The linking process of organizations is communication, balance and decision analysis. The main components of the system approach or the modern theory of management are the individuals, formal and informal organization, patterns of behavior, role perception and physical environment (Shafritz et al. 2015).
The first modern theory of organization was developed by Barnard in the year 1939 that was commonly known as systems of coordinated activities. The role of executives in an organization is essential as they are the ones to create value and purpose in an organization. Manager’s success depends on its support from its subordinates rather than dividing the organization into hierarchical structure. The others theories of modern theories are contingency theory, systems theory and organizational structure theory. The main goal is to manage equilibrium in management (Rice 2013).
Human behavior and attitude plays an important role in an organization. Since different people from different culture and background coordinate and work together in a group to achieve one common goal it is essential to understand the behavior of individuals at workplace. The policy and strategies set by managers should depend on the behavior of people itself. Work behavior is formal in nature and is related to employment. The work behavior of individual varies from profession to profession. In some work places it is casual and in some it is more formal. For example a lawyer at work place will have a more professional behavior then the employees working as software engineers (Pinder 2014). One new type of work behavior that is observed in organizations is known as counterproductive work behavior. Some examples of counterproductive behavior is ignoring people at work, working slowly in organization wasting companies time, refusal to help its colleagues and refusal to accept the task. These behaviors can be destructive in nature and mist be avoided by employees at workplace. A proper job analysis is essential. The responsibility of managing employees and understanding human behavior is of Human resource department in an organization. The human resource department is responsible o understand the work culture and then form the strategies accordingly that preserves the interests of people (Becker 2013).
One of the earliest studies of human behavior was conducted in the year 1927 by Harvard’s Elton Mayo. The study was conducted with respect to AT&T’s Western Electric Hawthorne Plant that is still used today by many managers in an organization. The main aim was to find out how lighting affects the performance and fatigue of workers. The major aim of the human behavior at workplace is to behave ethically. It is essential to understand the personality traits of employees at workplace to manage work properly. A worker should be motivated at work place to improve the productivity and efficiency. Various theories have been developed to understand the behavior of individuals at workplace (Armstrong and Taylor 2014). The most common method to understand the personality trait of individuals is a five factor model. The Big Fives include emotional stability also known as Neuroticism, extraversion that describes whether an individual is assertive or outgoing. Openness describes whether the person is an introvert or an extrovert. This also refers to the culture of individuals. The other factor is agreeableness that defines the degree of cooperativeness and coordination. The other is conscientiousness that shows an extent to which an individual is hard working or lazy (Altman and Wohlwill 2012).
The main skill that a manager requires to manage the employees and work in an organization is the leadership skill. Interpersonal skills are the skills that one possess use to communicate and coordinate with people and groups and in everyday life. People who have good interpersonal skills are the ones who have achieved great heights in professional and personal life. Developing skills and personality is essential for any organization and individual. Employers look forward to hiring employees who have good personality and a well developed skill and knowledge. The interpersonal skill that a person should have is confidence, time management, leadership; effectively work in as a team with its colleagues and clients. The interpersonal skills are relevant to personal relationships, social affairs and professional lives. A list of interpersonal skills includes verbal and non verbal communication, listening skill, negotiation, problem solving and decision making and assertiveness (Nadkarni 2013).
A leader is the one who inspire the entire group to follow them. The responsibility of the leader is to manage the work efficiently and keep the workers motivated. An effective leader is the one that sets an example for people to follow. For effective management of organization the managers not only require technical skills but also management skills. Some of the key skills that are needed are communication, motivation, and delegation and understanding team dynamics (Cai 2014). The top five management skills that an organization requires are:
Team work is very essential for the organization development and growth. Teamwork helps in creating synergy and helps in supporting more empowered way of working. Many people avoid teamwork at organizations and just work for individual benefit. But teamwork is very essential as it:
Creating an effective team in organization is essential. There are five steps to create an effective team that are as follows:
Organizations face many problems that can be addressed as follows:
The problems in organization can be solved by taking proper and effective steps by managers. It is essential to correct the issues in order to increase efficiency and productivity. The manager should first determine the problems that exist in an organization. Then the next step is to describe the problem and find out the key findings related to the data. Contacting the team of experts is essential to form a solution set for the given problems. At last the manager should monitor the result after the problem has been solved (Sternberg and Frensch 2014).
Hence it can be concluded that organizational behavior analyzes various attitudes that people hold in an organization. Many theories have been developed by various authors on the management of firms. The firms face many problems that can get solved by using proper steps and skills. Leadership skill is the most essential skill that an organization requires for effective management of work. Teamwork is an essential idea that helps the organizations to earn extra profit. The human resource department should hire the people who have good skills and personality to handle the task effectively. It is essential for the firms to understand the importance of management skills in an organization.
Altman, I. and Wohlwill, J.F., 2012. Human behavior and environment: Advances in theory and research (Vol. 2). Springer Science & Business Media.
Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S., 2014. Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.
Becker, G.S., 2013. The economic approach to human behavior. University of Chicago press.
Cai, H., 2014. Management development: A principles framework and critical skills approach. Human Systems Management, 33(4), pp.207-212.
D’Adderio, L. and Pollock, N., 2014. Performing modularity: Competing rules, performative struggles and the effect of organizational theories on the organization. Organization Studies, 35(12), pp.1813-1843.
Davidson, H., 2013. An exploratory study into attitudes towards teamwork in the workplace and in the academic environment.
DuBrin, A.J., 2013. Fundamentals of organizational behavior: An applied perspective. Elsevier.
Gallie, D., 2013. Direct participation and the quality of work. Human Relations, 66(4), pp.453-473.
Greenberg, J. and Colquitt, J.A. eds., 2013. Handbook of organizational justice. Psychology Press.
Haslam, S.A., van Knippenberg, D., Platow, M.J. and Ellemers, N. eds., 2014. Social identity at work: Developing theory for organizational practice. Psychology Press.
Hatch, M.J. and Cunliffe, A.L., 2013. Organization theory: modern, symbolic and postmodern perspectives. Oxford university press.
Miner, J.B., 2015. Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge.
Morton, L.H. and Weinstein, J., 2015. Collaboration and Teamwork (Weinstein/Morton).
Nadkarni, U., Harrington Technologies Llc, 2013. Skills database management system and method. U.S. Patent 8,554,754.
Pinder, C.C., 2014. Work motivation in organizational behavior. Psychology Press.
Pinder, C.C., 2014. Work motivation in organizational behavior. Psychology Press.
Rice, A.L., 2013. The enterprise and its environment: A system theory of management organization (Vol. 10). Routledge.
Roehling, M.V., 2014. Book Review: Multinational Human Resource Management and the Law: Common Workplace Problems in Different Legal Environments. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 67(3), pp.1044-1045.
Shafritz, J., Ott, J. and Jang, Y., 2015. Classics of organization theory. Cengage Learning.
Sternberg, R.J. and Frensch, P.A., 2014. Complex problem solving: Principles and mechanisms. Psychology Press.
Wagner III, J.A. and Hollenbeck, J.R., 2014. Organizational behavior: Securing competitive advantage. Routledge.
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