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Organizational Change In An Information Technology Add in library

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Question:

Complete a research paper on Organizational Change in an Information Technology environment?

 

Answer:

Introduction

The rate at which change is being manifested in the Organizations is rapidly outpacing the most complex theories like economic, social and philosophical changes on which most of the Organizations depend on. Most of the times these changes are being mistaken for causing an immense disturbance in the information technology aspect but they are fully capable of producing a revolutionary change in the technology (Cordell, A 1987).

The environment has been modified to a greater extent and we need to be modified to adjust to the changing environment at an equally faster pace (Weiner, N 1957). The survival and growth of the Organizations in an increasingly turbulent environment would depend on the effective utilization of information technology in order to align the organizational structures. IT can help make the organizational environment more flexible. In this research article we will discuss the aspects of the impact of IT in managing the organizational change and its implications for the developing countries.

Aspects of Information Technology

Information Technology can be defined as a convergence of electronics, computing and tele communications. It has changed the entire aspect in which the IT can view the possible technological innovation in collecting, storing, processing, transmission and presenting the information in the IT spectrum. It has transformed the IT sector into a highly dynamic and expanding environment which can create new markets and generate new levels of investment with income and jobs however it can also provide other sectors with greater and efficient mechanisms for responding to a shift in the demand patterns and changes in the international market with competitive advantages with more efficient production processes and improved levels of services. For example this can happen through replacing of older mechanisms of office processing, file transactions, application processing and technological methods used in processing various applications.

The development in the IT sector has been intimately linked to various advances which have been accomplished through micro - electronics. The electronics is based on the scientific changes and technological breakthroughs and it has been affecting every segment of the technological industry in terms of preparing the industry for the present and the future advancements. The introduction of the micro - chips has resulted in reduction of costs and has improved the technical performance of the electronics industry (Malone and Rockart 1993). The massive technological revolution which has been caused is a result of t features of the single micro -  electronic chip which has permitted lower assembly costs for most of the electronic equipment which provide faster rates of speed which result in faster and more powerful computers.

If we look at the other industries as well we find that the industries of steel and transport have undergone a massive change as a result of revolution in these aspects. All the sectors of the economy have been influenced by the IT revolution which has opened up greater opportunities for exploitation of the economies of various types of scales which allow more flexibility in production and usage of resources in various projects. These resources in turn can be deployed in various projects on need basis depending on the type of the projects, scalability and the skill sets which are required for the projects.

In other industrial sectors like the manufacturing and in other sectors like agriculture their processes have been automated and they require more flexibility in terms of regularity of machines and technology. The pace of the technological change in the IT industry is more likely to accelerate the observable growth in the interdependence of the international relations which are not only related to economic or financial aspects however to political and cultural aspects.

The advancements in the tele- communications and computerization have enabled lot of larger companies to use Information Technology to transmit their technical and economic information among the numerous computer systems which are available for them at various geographic locations to direct the managerial control from a central location. This has resulted and would further result in affecting the international division of labor and production in the international trade which could change the methods in which the industrial ownership and control would be changed to withstand the competitive edge of the individual countries which can generate new business in future (Kaplinsky, R., ed. 1986).

 

Most of the changes in the Information Technology sector which are responsible for revolutionizing the industries and the organizational spectrum confer to the changes in the Information Technology in its real and economic significance. There is a greater level of substitution which is happening of the new technologies from the existing ones for the rationalization of the standard activities, IT offers completely new and different ways to work with the system integration. Previously there were different mechanisms which were being implemented in changing the technological systems and in the present times more than applying one item of new technology to each of the production functions various stages of production processes are being applied like design, production, marketing and distribution which could also be called as the stand – alone applications which could lead to a lot of improvements and this process is also called as island automation. This process has evolved into a variety of new technologies. For example in most of the Information Technology sectors the systems which are prominent are the Enterprise Resource Planning Systems where IT offers the possibility of linking design to production. For examples in this spectrum programmable designs, customization applications, codification of designs, testing with the suitable testing application equipment which are followed by the planning and design to marketing and distribution. Finally the designed product is moved to different production environments where the server activities take place and these applications are moved to the servers for further availability of those applications to the customers at various locations.

The complete integration of all these production sub systems in a synergy are made available for a long term in reality however the usage of the automated equipment are linked to the other individual items of equipment which belong to various segments of discrete operations which have made their way into the strategic issues of the IT industry.

More technical advancements are possible in the automation of telecommunications, information and technology, electronics and media where data transmission will enhance the possibilities of the systems integration. The programmable automation or the computer – integrated industry has the capacity of integrating information processing with various physical tasks which are performed by the programmable machine tools or robots. Computer – integrated industry offers radical improvements in most of the problem causing areas like

  • Reduced lead time for the existing and the new products
  • Reduced inventories
  • More accurate control over production and better quality production of management information
  • Increase the production of the activities
  • Reduced over - head costs
  • Improved and consistent quality
  • More accurate forecasting of the business futures
  • Improved delivery performance (Miles et al 1988).

Conclusion

All these features characterize the computer – integrated industry and the Information Technology as a new technological system with more advanced changes in the electronic, computer and tele communications technologies which converge and offer a range of new technological options to various branches of the economy. Project Management can be specific to any of the areas however in IT the system could involve more of the timelines and specific guidelines by which the entire project should be well balanced and implemented. All the project tasks should be readily available out of which any of the tasks could undergo changes at any point of time and there could be a no. of change requests which could be incorporated in the system. Effective planning and scheduling become the most critical aspects of the project management. Later the management and control of this phase become the critical parts of the project management life cycle.

 

References

Autor, D., L. F. Katz, A. Kreuger. 1997. Computing Inequality: Have Computers Changed the Labor Market? Mimeo, Harvard, Cambridge, Mass.

Benjamin, R. & Levinson, E., "A Framework for Managing IT- Enabled Change,"

Sloan Management Review, (Summer 1993), 23- 33. Berman, E., J. Bound, Z. Griliches. 1994. Changes in the Demand for Skilled Labor within U.S. Manufacturing Industries. Quarterly Journal of Economics 109.

Clemons, E. K., S. P. Reddi, M. C. Row. 1993. The Impact of Information Technology on the Organization of Economic Activity: The "Move to the Middle" Hypothesis. Journal of Management Information Systems 10 9­35.

Daft, R.L., .Organization Theory and Design., West, Saint Paul, MN, 1992.

Davenport, T.H., J.E. Short 1990. .The New Industrial Engineering: Information Technology and Business Process Redesign.. Sloan Management Review 31,11-27.

Drucker, P.F., The Big Power of Little Ideas. Harvard Business Review, 42 (May 1964), 6-8.

Fisher, M., J. H. Hammond, W. R. Obermeyer, A. Raman. 1994. Making Supply Meet Demand in an Uncertain World. Harvard Business ReviewMay­June 83­93.

Hammer, M. 1990. Reengineering Work: Don.t Automate, Obliterate. Harward Business Review (July-August) 104-112.

Hicks, J. 1970. Elasticity of Substitution Again; Substitutes and Complements. Oxford Economic Papers 22 289­296.

Jacobsson, S. "Technical Change and Industrial Policy: The Case of Computer Numerically Controlled Lathes in Argentina, Korea and Taiwan." World Development 13 (March 1985), no. 3.

Kaplinsky, R., ed. "Restructuring Industrial Strategies." Bulletin of the Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex (1989).

Morton, M.S. Scott, "Information Technology and Corporate Strategy," Planning Review, (September-October 1988), 28-31.

Malone, T.W. & Crowston, K., "Toward an Interdisciplinary Theory of Coordination," Technical Report 120, Center for Coordination Science, MIT, 1991.

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