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Organizational Fairness And Diversity Management In Public Organizations

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The cited article from Scandinavian Journal of Management attempts to bring about a new outlook on strategies made for diversity management in the organizations. The authors of this article are prominent scholars of social sciences in the universities of Amsterdam. The article raises the issue of conflict remaining in the very system of how society and the organizations endeavor to manage diversity. It is believed that eradicating diversity from the root of organizational system is possible through social integrity and inclusiveness. However, in the very core of society there remains a latent discourse of otherness constantly emerging and thereby hindering the process of inclusion. On the other hand, the context of power in the organizations also causes for suppression and injustice resisting the inclusion process. Due to this, the study conducted by Ghorashi and Sabelis reveals that an ever-changing power relation would make opportunity for new ideas in diversity management. This will enable the employees of the organizations to understand diversity in practices and individual choices. However, the article recommends not to stress the interests of managerial work greatly as this eventually bar the genuine change and decelerate the very process of inclusion.

Hal G. Rainey and Sungjoo Choi, both of them being eminent scholars from University of Georgia and Kyung Hee University respectively, have conducted the referred study. The study concerns with the increasing attention of the business organizations in effective diversity management and Rainey and Choi, in this context, inspects how organizational transparency united with diversity management contributes to the job satisfaction of the employees. To uncover this, data was derived from the 2006 Federal Human Capital Survey and for this, hierarchical regressions were used; these regressions consisted of both logistic and linear regressions. As for the method of the study model 1 was developed by a dependent variable of job satisfaction, a single-item measure and model 2 was developed with various-item measure. Other than dependent variables, the study also considered independent variables like diversity management, seeming organizational fairness and demographic variables. The result of the study conclusively shows that job satisfaction among the racial or ethnic minority group and women in context of diversity management is rather low than their counterparts. Thus, the study leaves the public administrators with real practical inference despite the incessant efforts for diversity management made; there must be some loopholes causing dissatisfaction among women and ethnic or racial minorities.

The changing demography in the organizational workforce has created unmatched challenges for organizations, both nonprofit and public. According to the authors of this particular chapter in the book, Wooldridge, Smith-Mason and Maddox, the journals of public management have made no considerable contribution in addressing diversity management in the public administrations and that this has purposed administering this research. This study aims at identifying the chief components of diversity. In addition, the research also inspects how the minority groups in a workplace feel as well as the extent of their job satisfaction. The study recognizes diversity components in terms of gender diversity, generational differences, ethnic and racial minorities, older workers, disabled workers and employees belonging to LGBT community. Interestingly, the study also mentions some unusual diversity groups in terms of couples with dual-income where both the partners are working and external or contingent workers. This study effectively finds out that the biggest challenge for diversity is discrimination and lack of social sensitivity in the workplace. In addition, the authors have opined that visible demographic distinctiveness as racial and gender differences create correlation that is more negative rather than the others. Although the study limits its diversity data collection research work on Hispanic and African-American minorities, the study concludes on a positive note that effective management of diversity will enhance the teams’ creativity as well as level of participation and interaction.


Diversity management in organizations and in workplaces has sought the attention of researches though the literatures of these previously conducted studies tend to offer contradictory suggestions on effective diversity management. Therefore, this study aims at developing a multilevel model to provide the organizations with a comprehensive view of diversity.  Apparently, the study suggests a model explaining the connection between work-related outcomes and employee dissimilarity based on job motivation logic as well identifying practices of diversity management. By effectiveness in diversity management, the authors clarify here that it should refer to the desirable contributions in the team performance made by the diverse groups working. To conduct the study the authors first adopted a rational perspective and concentrated on employee’s differences from the companions in a working group and after that a motivational outlook was adopted by the authors on how these differences affect the outcome of individual’s work. Further, six propositions were made to develop an integrated model and argument proceeded to decided how far these assumptions were valid.  The study required assessing multiple methodologies used in various studies mixed with field studies applying survey methods. Research conducted by cited authors imply that the organizations must address the employees’ concerns regarding their identities, promote their self-efficacy and accept their performance as equally as of any other.

The cited study refers to one significant aspect of diversity management that is not explicitly present in the previous other studies; the sense of psychological security contributing to diminish racial differences and enhancing employee performance. The authors of this article have positioned psychological security as an intermediating mechanism in the relationship between performance and diversity climate. It has been proposed that the employees’ assessment of the organizational climate regarding diversity manipulates their psychological safety that later tend to shape their performances. To prove this point, six hypotheses were adopted and further discussion continued in this regard. The study was based on both survey administration and data collection. The respondents were the supervisors and employees of a mid-sized production enterprise in Midwestern US. The purpose of the study was to measure diversity climate through 4-item scale and the psychological security by 3-item scale. The hypotheses were, thereafter reconsidered according to these surveys. The result of this study indicates that this relationship is stronger for the minorities than the majority of Whites. The implication of the study remains that the managers must foster and ensure psychological safety for the employees regardless of any discriminating factors and they must create an environment of hospitality for diversity in the organization.

The practices of inclusion in the environment of diversity are greatly practiced now a day though there is scope for professional practice norms. Unfortunately, many of such inclusion activities are not the same with the complexity scale of the diversity issues needed to be addressed. This cited study aims to strengthen the competency of diversity and inclusion practitioners by providing the industrial and organizational psychologists with valuable research findings. Since, the research was primarily a qualitative one, in the first place, the increasing practice of D&I in the workplace was considered. Besides this, the research intended to refer an improved strategy for the inclusion practices in an environment of diversity at workplace and for that four key principles such as resources and qualifications of the participants, group processes, relationships maintained with stakeholders and continuous improvement were assumed to be adhered. Eventually, the relevance of these professional practice norms to the industrial and organizational psychologists was considered. The authors further suggested that the direct involvement of the I&O psychologists in the process of D&I would actually enhance the process.

This cited study aims to make an improvement on the previously done researches on how setting of goals or achievements voluntarily activates the employees of an organization and thereby influencing the relationship between diversity and performance even more. The study has been developed by testing earlier theories and extending those researches in the space of this study. The research was conducted in a business school in Netherlands where the students were working on a project of business simulation. Several groups containing four members each were formed and a survey was conducted on them even before the simulation started. The key measured items in this survey were goal orientation, cultural diversity, team performance and control variables. Grounded on this research, the previously assumed hypotheses were tested and the result of the preliminary study has both theoretical and practical implications. The study shifts significant focus on self-regulatory strategies and motivational orientations of the employees as well as the practical implications of the study emphasizes the importance of retaining diversity in the organizations.



Ghorashi, H., & Sabelis, I. (2013). Juggling difference and sameness: Rethinking strategies for diversity in organizations. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 29(1), 78-86.

Choi, S., & Rainey, H. G. (2014). Organizational fairness and diversity management in public organizations: Does fairness matter in managing diversity?. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 34(4), 307-331.

Rice, M. F. (2015). Diversity and public administration. ME Sharpe.

Guillaume, Y. R., Dawson, J. F., Priola, V., Sacramento, C. A., Woods, S. A., Higson, H. E., ... & West, M. A. (2014). Managing diversity in organizations: An integrative model and agenda for future research. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 23(5), 783-802.

Singh, B., Winkel, D. E., & Selvarajan, T. T. (2013). Managing diversity at work: Does psychological safety hold the key to racial differences in employee performance?. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86(2), 242-263.

Hays?Thomas, R., & Bendick, M. (2013). Professionalizing diversity and inclusion practice: Should voluntary standards be the chicken or the egg?. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 6(3), 193-205.

Pieterse, A. N., Van Knippenberg, D., & Van Dierendonck, D. (2013). Cultural diversity and team performance: The role of team member goal orientation. Academy of Management Journal, 56(3), 782-804.


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