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Organizational Inducements And Psychological Resilience

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The following report is based on organizational behavior. It is observed that organizational behavior is related to different aspects of the business. As the industries have become competitive, the organizations have to focus on dynamics of the environment, as the competition come from the industry dynamics. An organizational environment is built of different aspects such as human resource, employee performance, productivity and many more. As put forward by Uddin, Luva and Hossain (2012), organizational behavior is the activity of both group as well as individual performance within the organization. In this context,  Sageer, Rafat and Agarwal (2012) also commented that organizational behavior is also related to the human behavior in organizational setting, the interface between human behavior and the organization. These aspects have strong impact on the organizational productivity, employee performance and business growth. However, to learn how organizational behavior does influence the productivity and operation, three separated journals on organizational behavior have been selected. The similarities and dissimilarities of these three articles have been discussed in the report. Based on the findings, integrated interpretation has been provided in the report.

The first article is about the relationships of organizational inducements and psychological resilience to employees' attitudes and behaviors toward organizational change This study has been conducted considering the telecommunication sector in Bangladesh. Another article is about the identification of variables affecting employee satisfaction and its impact on the organization. Likewise, the last article is about whether commitment based resource practices influence job embeddedness as well as intention to leave. Each of the articles has provided different outcomes related to organizational productivity, employee satisfaction and human resource Management.


Similarities among the three articles

Theoretical perspective of the first article- As this article is about relationships of organizational inducements and psychological resilience to employees' attitudes and behaviors toward organizational change. It is observed that employees while working in the midst of organizational change observe inherent stress as well as strain. It is significant that change executors understand the crucial role that major resources play in enabling individuals to deal with these challenges and stresses. It makes the employees highly committed to, and behaviorally engaged in, change implementation. The theory of conversion resource provides conceptual description of the role that resource play in collaborating individual’s reaction to organizational change. As mentioned by Shin, Taylor and Seo 2012), the employees tend to consider the world as naturally threatening as well as demanding; thus, they carry a wide set of individual strength as well as social attachment to survive. To respond to the changing environment, the individuals attempt to obtain, retain as well as promote valued entities.

Theoretical perspective of second article-This article is about the impact of human resource on organizational outcome. Observation of the relationship between HRM as well as organizational result remains as one of the long-standing goals of macro Human Resource Management studies. Jiang et al. (2012) considered the organizational outcome is considered as multi-dimensional. Based on the theoretical perspectives, it can also be added that strategic human resources management have several categories such as HR outcome, the outcome of operation as well as the financial outcome.

Theoretical perspective of third article- This article is about the impact of high performance HRM practices on Employee Attitudes and behaviour. Based on the theoretical perspective of the article, it can be added that rational procedure of mutually reinforcing HR practices probably to develop the support and sustainable performance result than any other individual practices. In addition, theoretical background also helps to learn that not all HR practices remain as equally effective. Even though, some particular HRM practise involved high-performance, the HR systems differed across studies.  This article also discusses about the employee commitment, which is a major key world of second article.

Theatrical background All of the three articles include discussion about the relationship between the human resource Management and the organizational outcome, which in turn influence the employee performance.

The methods of first article-This article include a longitudinal survey design implemented with a particular sample of employees as well as the managers from an Information Technology company in located South Korea. The study sample involves 344 employees and 48 managers of the company who work in a 16 different divisions.

Methods of second article- To conduct the study, the authors have examined the mediating hypotheses using a meta-analytic structural equation modelling. The authors have used PsycINFO and Quest Digital Dissertation data set.


Methods of third article:- To gain the research result, the study includes a primary analysis. In order to collect the primary data, employees of a food service organization have been involved in the survey. The directors were also involved to administer the survey to randomly chosen group of 20% of the employees in the overall unit.

Research result and interpretation of first article- The result of first article is based on the impact of organizational inducements as well as psychological resilience, which includes both affective and normative commitment. Likewise, the hypothesis helps to learn that the positive effect could mediate the relationship between organizational inducement and employees’ normative and affective commitment.

Research result and interpretation of second article- Based on the meta-analytic review, it is found that three dimension of HR systems have different relationship along with employee motivation and human capital. These are largely related to the operational result as well as voluntary turnover. The study also discovered a direct relationship between skill-enhanced HR practices, financial outcome as well as motivation-enhanced HR practices.

Research result and interpretation of third article- The research results supports authors’ prediction that employees’ collective perception of high performance HR practices are related to organizational citizenship behaviour, affective commitment as well as intention to stay in the organization. In addition, it is negatively related to absenteeism.

Differences among the three articles-

Theoretical perspective- Because of the subjective nature of culture, it can be difficult to define the specification of organizational culture. Even though no theory has been accepted, a genera consent comes regarding organizational inducements and Resources influence employees commitment comes into the consideration. The theoretical perspective of the article is different from others two articles. This theoretical background of this article does not cover perception of high performance and commitment, which are the central idea of second article.

Theoretical perspective of second article-This article only focussed on the HRM as well as organizational outcome. The critical discussion of the article only highlights relationship between the organizational outcome and HRM practices.  This study emphasizes on the fact that different HR practices should be applied to achieve the organizational goals. The organizational culture does not consist of one single entity of human resource Management.

Theoretical perspective of third article- Even though, the perspective of human resource and organizational productivity differ in this article, the theoretical discussion has mentioned that if the employees are satisfied with the organizational benefits, the organisational productivity could be positively influenced. Thus, perspectives help to learn that organizational productivity and efficiency can be achieved through employee satisfaction and focus to employees’ emotional and physical needs.


Even though the critical discussion of three articles have used same or equivalent key words, but emphasis one each key word is different in each article. The major focus of first article is on the organizational encouragement and psychological resilience to employee’s behaviour but it partially focuses on the employee commitment that is influenced by human resource management practices.

The methods of first article: -Unlike other article, this article has used a broad sample to conduct the longitudinal survey. The sample included 344 employees and 48 managers, whereas the second article has only used the secondary method.

The methods of second article:- Unlike the first article, this study is based on the secondary analysis. For HRM, the study has used some particular key words such as high work performance, high involvement work practice and high commitment work practices.

The methods of third article- The method of this article is little different from other two articles. The study includes a primary analysis engaging 20% of employees of the company who work in 56 self-contained business units.

Differences in research result and interpretation of first article: The result of the study confirm that different attribute of organizational culture has different impact on the overall operation. However, unlike the second article it does not focus on the impact of any particular attribute. Nevertheless, it shows the relationship between the cultural and performance.

Differences in research result and interpretation of second article: This study has only derived the outcome of commitment based human resource management, on the job embeddedness, and off the job embeddedness. However, this study does not focus on other attribute of organizational culture.

Differences in research result and interpretation of third article: This article has developed the outcome regarding different variables that have strong impact on the employee satisfaction. The result of the study indicates that employee satisfaction could largely influence the organizational productivity. Nevertheless, no result related to HRM practice and organizational culture has been found.

Based on the methodology, theoretical perspectives and result, it can mentioned that none of the study has been competitive. Even though articles have included a primary analysis but articles have only conducted the survey and interview respectively. Although, the first article has conducted the interview among different level of employees but it did not include a secondary analysis or competitive analysis considering two organizations. The third article only includes a primary analysis and it does not focus on any particular context or organization. The first article has only included IT company of South Korea but the result of the analysis would have been more intensive if a comparative study was conducted.  In addition, the authors of the first article should have focused on another organization from the same industry or different industry. The findings of the study would differ if the organizations were taken from different industry. In addition to this, the second article only focuses on the variables of commitment based human resource practices. As the outcome is related to employee satisfaction, skills and talents, recruitment and selection procedures should have been added in the article. Likewise, the last article provides the general discussion of employee satisfaction and productivity. The effectiveness of this study can be increased conducting an empirical analysis.


Integration of the information contained in the three articles-

The findings and result of three articles are based on three different contexts. The first paper has discussed about different cultural aspects of the organization and demonstrated the significant relationship between the organizational culture and performance. Hence, the authors linked the organizational performance to employee performance. This means organizational productivity is directly depended on the performance of the employees. This finding is related to third article, where organizational productivity has been linked with the performance of the employees. Thus, to increase the organizational performance, employee emotional and physical needs have been considered as the significant factors. However, the employee emotional and physical needs are again is related to the commitment based on human resource management practice. In the third article, the effectiveness of employee commitment has been discussed focusing on employee basic needs such as wages, bonus, career development opportunities and other intangible benefits. However, Kehoe  and Wright  (2013) commented that organization provides the benefits to employees based on their reinforcement of commitment. This means the commitment based HRM practices facilitate in developing the fit dimension of the job embeddedness by choosing people who effectively fit with the organizations instead of the particular job requirement.

The integrated interpretation of the three articles increases the effectiveness of the discussion.  The integrated interpretation includes the idea of conducting a competitive analysis considering two different organizations from different industries. To gain the intensive outcome from the interpretation, both qualitative and quantitative approaches of data collection need to be added. Both the managers and the employees of each department of both organizations should be surveyed and interviewed to derive the factual data on organizational productivity and employee performance. Likewise, the study should include a secondary analysis considering a number of existing journals on employee commitment, performance and organizational productivity.  Thus, with this integrated interpretation, a sophisticated as well as extensive nature can be established in the paper, which could further add value to the organizations examining disciplines with intensive perceptions.


On the completion of the report, it can be added that three articles have been conducted on different context with different perspectives. However, definitions and theories related to organizational behavior discussed in the article are similar to each other. Based on the discussion of three articles it can also be added that employee behavior or attitudes characteristically reflect the moral of the organization. For example, in the area of customer service, the organizations need happy and satisfied employees as they could represent firm to the public. Thereby, each organization should form strategies that reinforce the work environment.



Article 1- Shin, J., Taylor, M.S. and Seo, M.G., 2012. Resources for change: The relationships of organizational inducements and psychological resilience to employees' attitudes and behaviors toward organizational change. Academy of Management Journal, 55(3), pp.727-748.

Article 2- Jiang, K., Lepak, D.P., Hu, J. and Baer, J.C., 2012. How does human resource management influence organizational outcomes? A meta-analytic investigation of mediating mechanisms. Academy of management Journal, 55(6), pp.1264-1294.

Article 3- Kehoe, R.R. and Wright, P.M., 2013. The impact of high-performance human resource practices on employees’ attitudes and behaviors. Journal of management, 39(2), pp.366-391.


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