2.Critically analyses and evaluate the HR practice in Contemporary work situations.
In this paper there is a fictional organization named as the “ DNT” organization. Given the current downturn in the DNT, it is not shocking that there has been a much verbal confrontation about the basic part which key partners, for example, colleges also; businesses can play in tackling the testing issue of graduate work. The motivation behind this is to examine graduate enlistment and advancement against the scenery of a weaker financial condition. All the more particularly trying to investigate the issues confronted by managers inside a few key segments regarding drawing in, what's more, creating graduates with significant aptitudes and abilities. Exploration expands upon prior work done by the present creators, which explored the procedures bosses use to pull in and hold graduates. It ought to be noticed that the past investigation specified was led during a period of relative monetary flourishing.
The Organizational structure
According to Marching ton and Kynighou (2012), the organizational structure shows how the activities are working towards the achievement of organizational goals and aims. These activities involve allocation, coordination, and supervision etc.
Organizational structure identifies the hierarchy of the authorities within the organization. It also segregates the job their functions and the reporting relationships. Reporting relationship includes, where one have to report.
This will enable individuals to work as a team or in a group, in order to accomplish all the predetermined goals (Marching ton and Kynighou, 2012). This definition is having is negatives or drawbacks as well, it does not show how and in which sequences authority has been divided or delegated. In short, the clear definition of the work is not discussed in this definition. These following concepts are relevant and sufficient, in the case study these factors affected the organization DNT and implemented over there.
Factors affecting the organizational structure
According to Glover and Butler (2012), organizational structure is affected by many factors which influence the performance of the organization. Although many factors are there which influences the organizational structure but five main are as follows:
- Levels - levels of business is also an important factor in the decision of organizational structure. This will depend on the authorities available in the organization. In the DNT industries, their different levels, top, the middle and the lower level and the functional organizational structure is followed.
- Centralization and decentralization- this is also an important a factor of the organization having the centralized authority or decentralize authority will decide the type of organizational structure.
- The span of control- in DNT industries the whole span of control is divided in the different function and their functional heads are having the span of control.
- Division of labor- on which basis labor has been divided will also be a factor in order to decide the type of organizational structure should be followed. In the DNT industries division of labor is done on the basis of the specialized areas like HR, operations, and accounting etc.
Type and analysis of organizational structure at DNT industries
According to Tikkamäki and Hilden (2014), although there are three types of organizational structure which are discussed as follows. In the DNT industry functional structure is followed by the organization.
The Functional organizational structure
According to Kaliannan and Adjovu (2015), functional organizational segregates the business into many small parts according to specialization like human resources, marketing, accounting, financial. The functional organizational structure is being followed by DNT industries and in this structure. At DNT industries, there are different departments and the authorities according to the specialization. Authority flow to the downward direction, senior to subordinate in DNT industries. At DNT industries, the headed authority is managing director and followed by DPOD and HR.
Analysis of the functional organizational structure at DNT
Strengths- functional organizational structure is having many benefits, which may lead to the success of the organization these benefits are as follows.
- Specialization- According to Islam (2012), the functional structure as earlier discussed divides the organization into specialized parts, so it will create a specialization in the organization. Specialization will be beneficial for the organization. When a company is of the functional organizational structure, a group of people having similar skills and the knowledge has been created.
- Reduces costs- as specialization is there, there are fewer chances of wastage of resources. As everyone is having specialization in their area, it will be helpful for the saving the costs by reducing the wastage and fuller utilization of resources.
- Productivity- specialization of work will tend to improve in productivity of resources. The expertise of work will enhance the efficiency of the work because expert reduces the chances of mistakes in their work.
- Time-saving- as workers are having the knowledge regarding their performed work and tasks; it will lead to the time-saving process in the organization.
Weaknesses- functional organizational structure is having its weak side as well. These weaknesses are as follows:
Management issues- There is a rigid communication network in functional organizational structures. This is all because of the high degree formalization, formalities and standardized ways of operation. Formalization makes the process slower.
Coordination- even in functional structure, all the functions performs with the greater efficiency but at some point, their coordination also gets compromised. When the coordination is not there among the groups then it will be difficult for them to work with each other. The occurrence of these miscommunications and the obstacles may cause reduced commitment, delays, wasted time and competing interests in the organization.
Matrix organizational structure
In this organizational structure, reporting relationships are setup in a sort of grid instead of the traditional method, in this structure, there is more than one authority that one has to report. The matrix form of relationship is there in this organizational structure.
Divisional organizational structure-
This will group the organization into the small division. In this structure, groups are clustered according to some similarities of products, geographical area and group or clients etc.
Organizational Behavior –
Organizational behavior is basically a study, in which the behavior of group and individuals within the organization is being observed. This is eventually the study which predicts or observes how an individual behaves and performs in groups. It is a scientific approach and simultaneously applied to the management.
Theoretical concepts of organizational behavior
According to Tikkamäki and Hilden (2014), organizational behavior basically depends upon the behavior of individuals; personality differentiates individuals with each other. Differentiation of personality is done on two basic approaches, which are as following:
- NOMOTHETIC- This approach is specific and the measurable, which basically looks at the identification of characteristics, personality, and traits. These characteristics can be described and measured therefore it can be subjected to tests and observations. This approach is having its two sub parts:
- The Big Five (Ocean) - the word OCEAN is defined by the word cluster or the trait cluster. This trait cluster captures the main personality traits
Openness- Openness basically indicates the intellectual curiosity, the innovation which a variety of person has. It can also be defined as a person is independent and have varieties of work over a fixed routine. As in DNT new Ella was offering something innovative and new to the organization.
Conscientiousness- this is the trait in which in this individual depends upon their own and shows their self- discipline as in DNT industries Ahmed was showing.
Extroversion- this trait includes energy, assertiveness, positive emotions, sociability and the talkativeness, as the Cries have in the DNT industries.
Agreeableness- this is having the traits of being friendly, challenging and the detached individual as Ella in DNT industries.
Neuroticism- an individual who is sensitive, confident and nervous as well comes under this situation.
Hans Essence- in this approach, there are two dimensions which ultimately defines four personalities. Which are as follows: stable extroverts, stable introverts and unstable extroverts, unstable introverts.
Idiographic approach- is having a perspective which is holistic and dynamic and insists that managers understand the ‘whole’ understanding of the work of the individual.
Myers-Briggs – this includes feel sensing, thinking, feeling and intuition, judging, perceiving and extrovert etc.
The importance of CSR in the organization - CSR plays a vital role in the continuous and smooth functioning of every organization. This includes ethical responsibility and customer Relationship. CSR is having the following benefits:
Motivated Employees- According to Lewis and Ibarra’s (2013), the most valued asset of any organization is employees of that organization. Treating employees and workers with respect and offering fair and good working conditions motivate the employees by CSR. It also establishes fair hiring practices in the workplace. This improves and enhances the morale at the workplaces and encourages teams to work in a coordinated manner. In DNT industry employees are also getting motivation from the nature and behavior of ELLA.
Profitability and Value- According to Marchington (2016), a CSR methodology improves association efficiency and regard. The innovation of imperativeness efficiencies and waste reusing cuts operational costs and focal points nature. CSR in like manner assembles association obligation and its straightforwardness with hypothesis agents and the media, speculators and neighborhood gatherings. This, along these lines, overhauls its reputation among money related authorities, for instance, shared resources that arrange CSR into their stock decision. The result is an optimistic circle where the association's stock regard additions and its passageway to the hypothesis capital are encouraged
Showing a True Commitment - According to Callahan and Connor (2015), the best corporate social commitment programs organize these two sorts of CSR together to exhibit a bona fide duty with respect to reason. For example, an association that usages doable materials in their things give fiscal resources for biological causes, and empowers agents to take paid time off for volunteering at normal philanthropies would be showing a certified duty with respect to the condition that goes past any single CSR movement.
Social Media Visibility- According to Martens and Wilson (2012), there are many reasons and one of them is that associations should have the perceptible CSR campaign is a direct result of the criticalness and normality of web based systems administration. Organizations that need to secure their picture appreciate that online long range informal communication is an important bit of open acknowledgment. Right, when an association hones social obligation through raising help or setting up labor giving ventures, using web based systems administration to lift these exercises makes a constructive stamping condition and it is an exceptional way to deal with attracting with your get-together of individuals on a more significant level that goes past your things or organizations.
Contemporary HR. practices
Contemporary Hr. practices are used in order to manage and sustain the employees in the organization. Employee management is necessary in every organization, this management of employees are personnel is continued from earlier times. This management help in order to maintain the important assets of the business.
The Relationship of HRM to the traditional practice of industrial relations and personnel management
According to Dunn (2015), the world is changing altogether and is by and by adding up to change. The incomprehensible things of yesterdays have ended up being possible today and the unimaginable things of today will wind up evidently possible tomorrow that is the reason it is said that change is the principle unending piece of nature to (Dunn, 2015). Traditionally old strategies have been used in order to recruit employees and to retain them in the organization. In contemporary time the personnel management term is used for the hr practices with some new and updated amendments. Hr practices are used in order to develop the skills of individuals and to motivate them. The possibility of autonomous nations is losing noteworthiness and the possibility of 'overall town' is creating. The organization of affiliations will without a doubt adjust up to the radical change by developing new strategies and practices in overall perspective after meticulously separating the honest to goodness troubles being gone up against by the master overseers. Because of the predictable developing money related, imaginative and political conditions and flow chiefs as behavioral/operational scientists in the affiliation go over the going with challenges: Trial of globalization, Trial of information age, Acid test change, Trial of administering the workforce grouped assortment, Reinforcing of workers, Progression of persevering states of mind and culture, Corporate redoing. According to Park and Shaw (2013), any affiliation limits with a steady participation of three vital components of money, machines and close by a couple of other bury related and dependent factors that are influential. Human resource management is basically the extended version of personnel management. As traditionally the personnel management was working in the direction of managing people in the organization, HRM extension includes the development, maintaining strength and managing people in the organization. The manager is the individual who altogether considers the effects of an action general or generous bit of the whole system before making the move, i.e. considers the situation behind the scene before making any move ( Park and Shaw, 2013). Effects may make sure or negative, so a cash sparing preferred standpoint examination is made before a move is used and moreover an appraisal that how far a particular masterminding has been feasible is considered. Thusly, it creates as a whole course of action of working. As the organization of the money with most extraordinary versatility and quality is basic in the working and improvement of any relationship close by the best help and operation of machines, it is fundamentally more basic to deal with the tolerable assortment and dynamism of the man at fill in as they are the benefits for any relationship to bloom, fabricate and impact. In addition, completed the years as far back as the unmistakable evidence of the striking piece of 'man as a benefit' of relationship, in organization there have been a couple of practices that were used, passed on and changed under the terms via work constraint organization, mechanical relations, and the latest being utilized is human resource headway and extensively more exhaustive angle goes under the title of human resource organization. Workforce MANAGEMENT (PM) is more so a customary kind of organization, where the boss was the person who dealt with, assigned and parcelled the work. An organization associated the norms for finishing things all around paying little personality to the kind of affiliation and condition included. PM has an obliged expansion and changed the presentation.
The models, laws, and techniques of working were sketched out by the organization, the wellspring pioneer of the association and the errand of the Personnel chiefs joins the activity of obtaining new agents and to keep up staff records, and to administer the work as a crucial device whose lead could be controlled for the upside of the affiliation and supplanted when depleted. PM practice was to make sure a monotonous checking by the boss, of the work done by the delegates in light of an honest to goodness worry for the relationship with an exchange, the division of work, roundabout and plunging correspondence and working under clear standards norms and conventions of the affiliation. Regardless, later asks about the show that there may be a couple of events where certain guidelines are used as a piece of all conditions by and large novel treatment is required in different cases in the wake of analyzing the diverse situational factors intentionally as the behavioral conditions are altogether more befuddled nowadays. Additionally, this was the methods by which HRM, Human Resource Management showed up. Taught individuals perceived that the man at work is the advantage of any affiliation and is dynamic in the way of considering and furthermore working, in this way his individual identity should be held. Besides, this passed on a conclusion to the PM approach that had a comprehensive perspective in overseeing labors.This approach can be adequately appreciated by differentiating it and the traditional organization approach where boss achieved something and a short time later finished it through people according to his orders and under his strict control and supervision without taking experts into conviction just to satisfy his driving forces. According to Jensen and Meckling (1992), the human resource organization approach, of course, is developmental and facilitative. It empowers people to create and support them in making restriction, obligations and diverse limits in them to make a climate where all can add to the relationship to the uttermost ranges of their upgraded limits. It will achieve specialist ampleness. People will get work satisfaction by making all the more full use of their abilities and this is decidedly required for the quick and convincing achievement of various leveled objective. In like boss part under HRM approach changes. He doesn't control the agents to finish the work rather support them to create to their full limits. In this way, the front line boss is required to give a conventional definitive climate wherein people can create and be beneficial.
HR practice in contemporary work situations
According to Park and Shaw (2013), new challenges come up with the new or contemporary business environment, these challenges affect many important parts or segments of management. These important parts include Human resources management. These issues are concerned about the legislation, diverse work forces, and technology etc. Managers who are facing this kind of challenges and practices use their expertise and the skills in order to avert these issues and challenges (Park and Shaw, 2013). According to Glover & Butler (2012), the Hr practices in the contemporary situation may cause to the employee motivation and the development of employees, training, and development, rewarding of the employee. HR practices cause to the increase and improvement in the employee performance and the increased productivity. These definitions of the relationships between Hr. practices in contemporary situations are having both negative and the positive perspective. Both the authors have defined their own perspective towards Hr. practices but both define the same thing in different ways with some expansion. These are the following issues and challenges faced by the Hr. practices in the contemporary work situation, Multi-Generational challenges in the workplace, legislation affecting the workplace, technological advances at workplace etc
- Structured organization and business - According to Ramo and Prochaska (2012), case change (HR influence opportunity — 39%). From Berlin: “Building a business case requires a sensible cognizance of the business or associations that HR serves, and also the working relationship with all business pioneers. HR can achieve both by incorporating business pioneers in the organizing strategies and organization (Ramo and Prochaska, 2012). This commitment in like manner ensures the business course of action and, in light of that game plan, the business buys in and reinforce."
- Creating pushed workforce masterminding capacities (HR influence opportunity — 28%). From Bersin: "High-influence HR affiliations combine progressed gauging and workforce examination concerning their techniques. This engages them to decode broad capacity, business data, and external workforce area data into workable encounters that they can use and offer with business pioneers."
- Executing the "right" HR strategies for knowledge (HR influence opportunity — 27%). From Bersin: "High-influence HR affiliations tend to submit themselves to making working environments that enable delegates to prosper both as individuals and as supporters of business accomplishment. According to Chambers and Trippel (2012), they attempt to make positive laborer circumstances and unmistakably pass on these yearnings in the HR rationale and mission. The best techniques for knowledge focus on empowering improvement and joint exertion, or making the best workplace, while the smallest reasonable rationalities focus scarcely on capability or cost-cutting attempts."
- Decreasing administrative work for HR business associates (HR influence opportunity — 25%). From Bersin: "Various HR limits have a section that is a contact between the HR limit and business pioneers. The specifics of this part move for the most part. High-influence HR affiliations use it to provoke senior business pioneers, focusing on decision help, workforce masterminding, activity change and authority teaching. By selecting the right individual, HR can improve its trustworthiness over the wander, upgrade working relationship with business pioneers, create regular cognizance and get the effect. Exactly when this part is executed insufficiently, with more focus on administrative commitments and taking solicitations, our examination found that it can truly diminish an HR's ability to work feasible and capable.
From this study, it has been concluded that in order to decide the organizational structure many factors are considered. Organizational structure decides the flow of communication in the organization. The organization structure is a part of organizational behavior. Organizational behavior predicts the behavior of humans in groups, how they behave in groups. This organizational behavior has its own theories. In DNT functional organizational structure is being followed. This structure is having its weaknesses and the strengths both the perspective. In this structure there is the downward flow of communication is used, authority is delegated to subordinates from the superior. In DNT organizational while working in groups the personalities of individuals and their traits have been collected from the study. Ella is having the extrovert Nature and Ahmed is of introvert nature and many other traits of them have been noted in this study. In DNT organization, CSR is playing an important role in order to motivate people, increase productivity and to increase customer satisfaction etc. in order to change the business environment, one has to deal with the challenges and issues and some actions should be taken in order to overcome these consequences. These consequences are the reward of taking the risk to change.
It has been seen from the present examination that HR rephrases are given due thought the entire unit under study as their mean scores were seen to be better than expected. This is a solid sign. Of the common HR Practices which got a great reaction from the respondents were HR Planning, Recruitment, and Selection, Enlistment, Training and Development, Fringe Benefits, Welfare Activities according to Statutory Requirements, Suggestion Schemes, SHE (Safety, Health, and Environment) strategy and Promotions and Transfers. In the event that these practices proceed and upgraded keeping in pace with the changing worldwide human resources condition, some better Conclusions and Recommendations results could be unmistakably found in this industry. In any case, there have been some basic territories of perception, which are a piece of HR Practices and are essential from the HRM point of view. These ranges are Career Planning, Reward, and Acknowledgment, and Welfare Activities past Statutory Requirements, Performance Examination, and Exit Policy.
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