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Otto Preminger And Carmen Jones Explorer

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Celebrities are individuals who are widely known by society and had attained a degree of media and public attention. They are recognized for their reputation which is for either good or bad deeds. Formation and management of positive reputation in society is not an easy task as it requires a lot of hard work and patience (Wasserbaue and Dhoest, 2016). The present study is based on research work on the life of celebrities; Maria Callas and Madonna by considering the factors which led them to the diva status. Maria Callas is a traditional diva, calm yet strong, being a heavenly idol also a very brilliant opera singer. On the other hand, Madonna is a modernistic diva; she is motivated, ambitious and often reveals unpredictable and domineering behaviour. On the basis of this research, lessons learnt from their life will be summarized.

Reputation of Maria Callas and Madonna as divas

Maria Callas has enduring legacy due to her sensational voice and determination to become a glamorous diva. She transformed herself into a glamorous diva whose mesmerizing stage presence and enhancing scandalous behaviour provided her frequent place to covers of international magazines (Sonneborn, 2014). She made her professional debut through Royal Opera of Athens in Boccaccio and quickly earned the primary role of Tosca (Smith, 2000). However, later she struggled for finding other roles due to World War II and faced various rejections. Due to this she moved to Verona and later debut with the performance of La Gioconda and get married to rich industrialist Giovanni Meneghini. With the management team of her husband, she continued her performance and became a demanding diva and in 1954 made debut in America in Norma which was considered to be her signature role.

Madonna started her career as a pop star singer in 1980 and became an idol for psychology and influenced them with her revealing fashion sense and she was a fashionista. Madonna was a good student; she won a scholarship in 1978, from the Michigan University. Eager for popularity and stardom, she stopped during her second year and shifted to New York; she had worked in shift despite having low and started to fight for performances and shows (BERNSTEIN, 2014). In New York club scene, she was popular, after she gave a hit ‘Holiday’, which was one of the America’s Top 20 and 'Like a Virgin' (1984) was her title track became the singer's first No. 1 single. During 1985, Madonna’s singles were sold more rather than any other artist. Madonna pursued the achievement of 'Ray of Light' with 'Music', however, 'American Life' album didn’t succeed and was not as hit as expected. She came back to form her 10th album 'Confessions on a Dance Floor' which was released in November 2015, along with its 'Hung Up' as a lead single getting number one position in 41 countries. In 2015, her latest album was released named 'Rebel Heart'. With the initiation of her career, Madonna was popular as "Queen of Pop", had a great social-cultural effect on all over the world with her thoughts behaviour, tapes, recordings and lifestyle.

Factors which had contributed to reputation and fame of Maria Callas and Madonna as divas

Maria Callas and Madonna were amazing singers and renowned with the status of diva due to their hard work and emotional intensity of their voice. They both had adopted something different from the league to retain their fame. Maria Callas had transformed herself to gain a glamorous body, and Madonna had adopted revealing fashion sense which had a significant impact on youth (Grover-Friedlander, 2014). Further, they both had endured scandals and struggled over the course they career, but they continued their musical journey with innovation and reinvention in their music work. Both divas were able to act with words and their ability to rise to glamour despite having severe emotional and personal difficulties (Placanica, 2014). Artistic achievements of Callas had provided her title of "the Bible of opera" by Leonard Bernstein and even after 30 years of her death she is still the definition of a diva and best-selling vocalists. On the other hand, Madonna is living legend as a primary contributor of contemporary pop and being considered as one of 25 Most Powerful Women of the Past Century.


Similarity and differences in the process of reputation construction of Maria Callas and Madonna as divas

The career of Madonna and Maria Callas has significant differences but the similar outline of musical journey. Maria Callas had started her career as opera singer through debut in royal opera but having a quick downfall in her career and faced various rejection due to World War 2. On the other hand, Madonna had got a quick career start up, as she was a good model and had an amazing voice (Wasserbauer and Dhoest, 2016). Madonna selected reinvention and innovation for boosting up her career while Maria Callas selected transformation of her body and support of better team work. Madonna had taken various vocal lessons for improving her voice regarding speech quality singing. While Maria Callas were not so much engaged in so much of training. Maria Callas have similar stereo types as she started her career through lowering their voices to straining their vocal cords. However, Madonna had broken all the rules with the launch of Gangbang as the statement against stereotype. They both have faced emotional distress due to their personal life, and as a consequence, their career gets adversely affected (Melville, 2017). Although, they both arise from failures and restart their career with amazing debuts and earn the title of diva in the music industry.

Happy coexistence of myth and truth in the process of reputation construction

Life of celebrities is always on public display due to curiosity of media, followers and their criticizers. Their lives are always surrounded by buzz of rumors which are not always true due to which there is happy coexistence of myth and truth at the time of process of reputation construction (Mabry, 2015). For example, not all love affairs rumors of Maria Callas and Madonna were true but their closeness to cited person were truth to some extent. Both divas were working hard for re-debut but they get criticized for deteriorating public images but without affecting by it they rebuilt their musical career and become immortal and legend as a diva in musical industry.

Lessons learnt from life story of Maria Callas and Madonna as divas

The musical journey of Maria Callas and Madonna as divas provides various learning to their followers. In these learnings, primary lesson learnt is that hard work is the key to your success all we need is to keep trying and give you best. Both the celebrities had faced down time, scandals and emotional breakdown but as a performer, they continued their journey instead of quitting (Simosko, 2013). Another lesson I learnt from them is continuous improvement and innovation in work assist in growth in a career by providing new heights. By making use of clever innovation and reinvention (in terms of music, fashion and dance), Madonna kept herself in headlines and grab the attention of music lovers. marketing, if you do not spend sufficient time on training, then your career will adversely affect like Maria Callas (Maria Callas, 2017). In addition to this, it is team work which provides success as individual work is temporarily viable but not for long lasting success. These both divas are a beacon for women across the world and a commendable example for leaders in any facet of life



Grover-Friedlander, M., 2014. Vocal accounting: the attraction of cinema to opera. Princeton University Press.

Melville, D., 2017. “Kissin’the Breeze Goodbye”: Otto Preminger and Carmen Jones. Explorer, (83).

Placanica, F., Karantonis, P., Verstraete, P. and Sivuoja-Kauppala, A. eds., 2014. Cathy Berberian: pioneer of contemporary vocality. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd..

Sonneborn, L., 2014. A to Z of American Women in the Performing Arts. Infobase Publishing.

Wasserbauer, M. and Dhoest, A., 2016. Not Only Little Monsters: Diversity in Music Fandom in LGBTQ Business. IASPM@ Journal, 6(1), pp.25-43.

Simosko, N., 2013. What can leaders learn from Madonna? [Online]. Available through <>. [Accessed on 31st July 2017].

Mabry, J., 2015. Madonna builds a worldwide reputation as leading innovator in rehabilitation. [Online]. Available through <>. [Accessed on 31st July 2017].

Maria Callas 2017. [Online]. Available through <>. [Accessed on 31st July 2017].

Smith, B. S., 2000. [Online]. Available through <>. [Accessed on 31st July 2017].


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