In the physiology and biochemistry and the cell calcium ions (Ca+) play an important role. Ca2+ act as a second messanger. And also in transduction pathways they play a major role. In case of neurotransmitter release from neurons the calcium ion (Ca2+) acts as a second messenger. (SMAJILOVIC and TFELTHANSEN, 2007). Cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration is kept low level of about 10(-7)M. When Ca(2+) concentration increases by specific stimuli via opening of channel proteins, Ca(2+) binds to Ca(2+)-binding proteins, activating specific proteins, results in responding the stimuli.
2. (a): By the conversion of tyrosine to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalamine (DOPA) catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine) are biosynthesized. From tyrosine to 3,4- dihydroxyphenylalamine by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate limiting step. Catecholamine consists of two groups : catechol and an amine group. By activating G-protein coupled receptor catecholamines are acted exclusively.
Circulating catecholamines are epinephrine and norepinephrine.
(b) : β-blocker drug blocks the receptors to inhibit the functions of catecholamines. And as a result the heart rate and blood pressure are reduced. β blockers are given to patient through a vein or by mouth. (Brindis and Walsh, 2010). When receptor numbers and catecholamine levels are increase, the effects of β-blockers are greatest. The heart’s ability to respond to stress is not completely diminished by β-blockers. β-blockers modify the response of heart to stress. Ability of heart for the responding to stress is not completely diminished by β blockers.
Fig: β- adrenergic blocking drug’s physiological effect in the presence of circulating catecholamines ; Source: (Brindis and Walsh, 2010)
3. (a) : Blood pressure and water (fluid) balance is regulated by rennin-angiotensinsystem (RAS) or the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). It is a hormone system.
Examples of ACE inhibitor includes:
Capoten(captopril), Vssotec(enarapril), Monopril (fosinopril).
(b): “The primary concern of the physician, when presented with a newly-diagnosed hypertensive patient, should be rapidly to reduce their blood pressure to within normal levels”
The statement is true. And the patients should follow the following advices:
Brindis, R. and Walsh, M. (2010). President's Page: Patient-Centered Cardiovascular Care: An ACC Initiative. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 56(2), pp.155-157.
Klabunde, R. (2012). Cardiovascular physiology concepts. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins/Wolters Kluwer.
Paiardi, S., Porteri, E., Rodella, L., De Ciuceis, C., Boari, G., Rezzani, R., Ricci, F., Bianchi, R., Rizzoni, D. and Agabiti Rosei, E. (2007). Angiotensin Receptor Blockers and Ace Inhibitors Prevent Microvascular Rarefaction in the Skeletal Muscle of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention, 14(3), pp.145-196.
SMAJILOVIC, S. and TFELTHANSEN, J. (2007). Calcium acts as a first messenger through the calcium-sensing receptor in the cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular Research, 75(3), pp.457-467.
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