It’s a worthy impression to include the people in the travel arrangement and in the planning of the trip. The involvement of children and adults with up to date and perfect information about the trip helps them in deciding what can go wrong on their trip and they will calculate the risk easily.
Secondly, with various involvements of different age group make the trip more enjoyable and with innovative ideas of spending quality time (Stafford et al., 2003). Well, informed adults can considerably improve the smooth running of a trip as they can better prepare themselves and less nervous themselves over the journey and enjoy the whole trip with a relaxed mind.
There should be proper arrangement to minimize the risk and any issue arisen in the journey-
Proper first aid kit must be prepared for if there is any misshaping like any injury or an accident.
Volunteers and caretakers must be alert with all the records of the presented persons on the trip to avoid any missing person (Powell, 2013).
Time is very important for travel arrangement, so planners must be prepared for any late departure or arrival.
Other related problems like loss of equipment, transport problem. Problem-related to food and other basic needs must be properly managed by the trip organizers and participants in the trip also are helpful in resolving issues.
Gathering information about the children and young people in the trip is most important part of planning any trip. The organizers of the trip have full information about the participants in the trip. They ask the parents-
The number of children and young people with full name in records.
-The age of the children.
- Correct address and contact details of parents.
-The child has any nutritive requirements.
-If a child takes any medicine during the journey who should manage it?
-In emergency regarding the health of a child the contact details of their family doctor (Fernandez-Planells et al., 2014).
-Whether the child is comfortable in outdoor activities like swimming, playing and other games.
-Any other information they think appropriate.
It’s the duty of parents to cooperate with the organizers and caretakers by giving proper information to them
Resources that are needed in the whole journey must be kept with the organizers of the trip. Resources include-
Travel documents- The first and the most important resource for the trip is the proper documents relating to the trip. These documents include time of arrival and departure of people, the number of people, conditions regarding services, records of advance payment and balance and another useful document (Thomas & Clarke, 2015).
First aid kit- First aid kit is necessary for traveling as no one want to be ill and injured on a trip and if something happens first aid must be given to requiring a person.
Equipment- Other equipment related to playing and activities, basic needs must be kept in journey bag.
General preparation is necessary for organizing outdoor trip for the children and younger
Ones, this includes-
-Proper checklist of the people that are going on a trip.
- The Proper information regarding place of the trip with time duration.
-The Weather is suitable for children and younger.
- Proper arrangement for the refreshment in the journey.
- If someone is missing and separated from the group, how to deal that situation.
- Guiding map must be arranged for the adult in the group (Thomas & Clarke, 2015).
- Contact numbers of the adults must be exchanged for any emergency.
-Adults and caretakers have full knowledge of designated areas or activities they will perform
Numeracy is an important fundamental portion of our daily life. In childhood stage numeracy in the curriculum is the base of the people. For the child’s numeracy skills developed in shape, pattern and sorting. The teacher’s emphases on supporting learners, children, to develop their standard of numeracy and facilitate persons to use and apply features of mathematics to solve the problems. The basic aim is to raise the standard of knowledge in listening, writing and emphasizing literacy enhances children learning (Chan & Dally, 2001). The importance is to give the children to motivate them and granting knowledge to help them as they grow for tasks and everyday life.
In the national curriculum framework, we can include-
A national numeric strategy that explains the planned variety and stability of work in primary mathematics to make sure that learners become appropriately numerates. It is proposed generally for day to day, situation by class teachers and has been established broadly and positively in schools of different types and sizes (Arunprasad, 2015). The national curriculum framework describes and clarifies the guidance to be taught at each stage. It contains direction on the everyday mathematics in which teachers will support them and on the evaluation of learner’s progress. The framework contains different teaching programs to describe how the mathematics can be taught and deliberate for the learners.
In organizational framework, we can include policies and practices to –
Numeracy support- The learners get many opportunities in everyday routine and understanding to practice and apply their numeracy abilities in an actual and expressive way.
Curriculum plans-To plan the curriculum in the way that it will be beneficial for the learners as well as for the teachers. All possible facts must be included in a curriculum which makes the mathematics more attractive and interesting subject (Toll & Van Luit, 2013).
Practice- Organization policy must be practiced with a simple and clear way. For the fulfilment of the objective of the organization, the policy must be flexible and have innovative thinking.
Actual assessment has a significant role in demonstrating the teaching methods adopted by teachers and how interestingly children try to learn. It is the duty of the teacher to follow the curriculum, preparing lesson plans, providing necessary material for the children. The teacher will also develop and adapt learning activities that are suitable for the children and they set clear learning aim so that the child’s progress can be measured and make them aware of their learning intentions (Arunprasad, 2015).
-Teachers planning practice is essential for mathematics as maths is the subject of practice and it is more emphasize on practical and logical approach.
- The teachers have to program mathematical plan to take an account of learner’s previous knowledge and varying needs.
- This plan must cover the structure of individual lessons with the objective of teaching.
As numeracy skills include knowing and using a number of facts, calculating and understanding different shapes, and counting and knowing the numbers. The strategies for supporting the learners to develop numeracy skills-
- helps the students to understand and follow guidelines.
-clarifying and highlighting the correct use of mathematical expressions
-spread out their knowledge in problem-solving tasks, mathematical puzzles, games.
-Have a practice of using recommendation, observation and support to inspire children to be on task (Sherin & Drake, 2009).
Applying a line of analysis that contains representing knowledge of using numbers, diagrams and communicating results orally or in writing.
Learning is going on a process that makes some meaning and is driven by the purpose and varieties of learners. This type of learning includes action and consideration, cooperation, and learning responsibility. This involves not just the acquirement of strategies, but also the observing and appraising of learning to look out which strategy it's effective. Only one strategy cannot apply for goals and purposes (Sherin & Drake, 2009).
Meeting the individual needs of each child is a policy of learning which not an easy task is for teachers. As a teacher, you will arrange all possible needs relating to education and learning process. Rather using particular an old style of learning teacher has to use innovative ideas for self -directed learners.
There is a different kind of strategies that children can use to solve the problems of mathematics-
-To solve the problems in mathematics, students must do their work systematically. It helps them to bring logical and proper development of their mathematics and even apply to their explorations (Sherin & Drake, 2009).
-It is very essential for mathematics students to keep track the work. It helps them to identify themselves and hey easily clarify their problems.
-The pattern in mathematics also an easy solution for the problems, as we understand the patterns we will catch the solution.
-Using and practice of symmetry helps the students to minimize the difficult stage of the problem.
When learners take an active step of learning, they-
-think logically and deeply about mathematical facts and models and build their own knowledge about the facts.
- believe in their present abilities and skills and use in different contexts, examine their views and try to solve the problems.
-need to develop their own practice for solving the problems.
-try to discuss the problems in their peer group and make practice in group studies (Sherin & Drake, 2009).
-the conversation about their self-learning and practice of mathematics and be an active student.
-always be enthusiastic and open-minded and never be hesitating in asking questions to teachers related to mathematical problems.
Aims and importance of learning provisions for literacy development are as follows-
-The basic aim of literacy development is to raise the awareness of learning and try to teach them the importance of experienced learning abilities for the persons.
- When there is a situation of teaching mixed age group, teachers aim is to collect all the required material for all the age group learners (Woodgate-Jones, 2009).
-To give proper knowledge and learning opportunities for the future growth and development of the learners.
-Reading, language, and writing are the literacy skills and are established through actual life and expressed understanding of the learners.
Thus, for the literacy growth and development, learning plays an important role and learning is a never ending process and it’s depend on learners involve in the continuous process of learning.
Policy and age-related expectation include
1. The National Literacy Strategy contains the development process of learning in all age groups.
2. The Primary National Strategy renewed framework program for literacy, they believe that working with the help of self-review framework will support the learning system. (Needs, 2008)
3. The main focus of the English Framework Strategy is to develop the flow of English as it is a global language and helpful in developing the literacy rate.
All the policies have one common aim of supporting the literacy rate in terms of many programs like teacher learning program, curriculum-based program, and others.
Strategies for developing reading and writing skills are as follows-
-The previewing policy that contains the title, reviewing, and photo description to help the student in reading and writing.
-To make predictions by the knowledge of the matter and expectations about the author’s writing style helps the student to build the reading and writing his own style (Chen, 2009).
-Prior knowledge strategy helps in getting ideas and clues of different unknown words help in understanding the matter and it becomes easy to read and write.
When learners use reading and writing strategies, they build up their self-confidence in their skill to read and write the language.
A range of strategies can be used to develop learners speaking and listening skills at the time of reading and writing work. This range can be divided into three strategies-
Getting learner’s knowledge ready- At every level of the learning process, the learner must be ready for speaking and listening. Learners must speak about the learning process and listen carefully the facts of teach (Cowley, 2010).
The tone of the teachers and the learners, must be correct to communicate and understanding the matter correctly. In this regard, it is better to understand your view in the form of diagrams which helps to establish information heard.
Combine review- Learners review themselves regarding the language they speak and listen and establish self-confidence in obtaining these skills.
The importance of attentive listening and speaking must be known to the learners for the development and growth. Learners have a various opportunity to practice speaking and listening for learning. Teachers are projected to integrate these skills-
-playing a significant role in guiding learners own learning.
-engaging in speaking and listening in various grouping systems like in group individuals reads and another listening carefully, commentary on finding as an announcer during the entire period (Needs, 2008).
-With the help of role-playing, storytelling practices the creativity of language.
Learners have the opportunity to improve and practice their conversation through play, to listen considerately and with increase the strength to answer back confidently.
Inspiring learners to ask questions and express their views help to show the learners that they are not ignored by the teachers and they have their own identity. When teachers ignore a learner and not follow their ideas and not giving any value of their opinions, they feel undervalued and could be losing their self-confidence and could be withdrawn himself from additional suggestions (Weinberger, 2000). Some opportunities that help in boosting the self-confidence-
-Encourage the learners by giving small responsibilities that can be helpful in their confidence level
-Always be friendly with them that will help to express their views.
-Be patient and as the teachers may explain the things more than once
- Teachers must listen to the learners carefully with taking an interest.
- Introduce new activities that inspire self-help and independence.
There are different ways that encourage the learners to respond directly to each other which improves their listening and talking skills. Some are discussed below-
1. Class discussion- The class and group discussion is the best way of learners to respond each other. As the classroom is a place of the peer group and every child is familiar with each other it is for the learners to discuss their viewpoints with more comfortable and confident.
2. Talk to each other- It is better for the learners to talk to each other rather than a teacher. If the learners want to know something, whether individually or with a group, it’s better to first talk with their peer group than to the teacher (Cowley, 2010).
3. Learn to use other student’s name- Learners will be more involved when they believe that teachers identify them as an individual, so encourage the learners to learn other names. It will increase the possibility that they will address each other by name and starts to pass the comments to each other.
The acquisition of language is essential to child physical and social development. For young learners, the language they have used from birth, and their home language is tied to their culture, family traditions and values.
Each learner’s style of learning a new language should be observed as adequate, logical and a part of the continuing development and learning of any language. A better way for the learners to tell everything about the culture is to do some activities that related to their cultural values and from their homeland. For example- Invite the child to bring something in class that belongs to their homeland. Then ask the child to explain his use of that thing in their home and discuss with their friends (Chen, 2009). This activity would be a better chance for the learners to tell everything about their culture and also for learning the culture of each other. It also develops the feeling of self-proud when the child himself explains his own culture.
Arunprasad, P. (2015) "Organisation learners' competence to overcome organisation's learning inertia: a conceptual framework", IJLC, 8(1), p. 42.
Chan, L. and Dally, K. (2001) "Learning disabilities and literacy & numeracy development", Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 6(1), pp. 12-19.
Chen, M. (2009) "Influence of grade level on perceptual learning style preferences and language learning strategies of Taiwanese English as a foreign language learners", Learning and Individual Differences, 19(2), pp. 304-308.
Cowley, G. (2010) "An investigation into the competence of workplace trainers to meet the special learning needs of underprepared learners", Tydskrif vir letterkunde, 36(1-2).
Fernandez-Planells, A., Figueras-Maz, M. and Pampols, C. (2014) "Communication among young people in the #spanishrevolution: Uses of online-offline tools to obtain information about the #acampadabcn", New Media & Society, 16(8), pp. 1287-1308.
Needs, L. (2008) "Motivating Learners in the Classroom: Ideas and Strategies – By Gavin Reid",Support for Learning, 23(2), pp. 97-97.
Powell, J. (2013) "Use of the common assessment framework in an acute setting", Nursing Children and Young People, 25(5), pp. 24-28.
Sherin, M. and Drake, C. (2009) "Curriculum strategy framework: investigating patterns in teachers’ use of a reformâ€based elementary mathematics curriculum", Journal of Curriculum Studies, 41(4), pp. 467-500.
Stafford, A., Laybourn, A., Hill, M. and Walker, M. (2003) "?Having a say?: children and young people talk about consultation", Children & Society, 17(5), pp. 361-373.
Thomas, S. and Clarke, D. (2015) "Views of children, young people and families: the 15 steps challenge", Nursing Children and Young People, 27(8), pp. 16-19.
Toll, S. and Van Luit, J. (2013) "The development of early numeracy ability in kindergartners with limited working memory skills", Learning and Individual Differences, 25, pp. 45-54.
Weinberger, J. (2000) "Students' Experience of a Distance Learning Professional Development Course in Literacy Education", Literacy, 34(2), pp. 90-95.
Woodgate-Jones, A. (2009) "The educational aims of primary MFL teaching: an investigation into the perceived importance of linguistic competence and intercultural understanding", Language Learning Journal, 37(2), pp. 255-265.
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