Green computing is the environmentally responsible as well as eco-friendly use of the computers and their resources. According to some scholars, they regard it as where the organization adopt a policy in order to ensure that the setup as well as operations of the information technology can produce the minimal carbon footprint (Harchol-Balter, 2013). The key issues are the energy efficiency in the computing as well as promoting environmentally friendly computer technology. It is all about the practice of designing, manufacturing, using as well as disposing the computers, servers and their associated subsystems.
Greening your computing equipment is essentially a low risk way for the business is to help the environment but also reduce on the costs. This is one of the growing trends in the business today. This has been achieved through making of the proper decision in order to go green in the workplace such as in the offices, to improve on the net profit of the business as well as reduce on the carbon footprint (Harchol-Balter, 2013). Moreover, this also refers to reducing on the energy usage, which in turn reduces the carbon dioxide emissions and the energy bill, which is an effective thing to do in an organization. The term green computing was essentially coined after the energy star program back in 1992. One of the initial result of the green computing was the sleep mode function of the computer monitors. As the concept was developing, the green computing had begun to encompass on the thin solutions for the clients, energy costs, and the virtualization practices (Levy, 2014). There are number of reason to go green these are: savings, green computing can lead to serious saving of the costs overtime especially when it comes to reduction in the energy costs from the servers, cooling as well as lighting (Lee, Subramanian, Ausavarungnirun, Choi & Mutlu, 2015). Secondly, reliability of the power; as the demand for the energy increases over the world, the supply of energy declines. The energy systems that are efficient helps to ensure there is healthy power system.
The von Neumann architecture, which is the basis for most digital computers today, suffers from the von Neumann bottleneck. Explain
The Von Neumann bottleneck has been regarded as the idea that the computer system throughput has been limited due to the relative ability of the processors as compared to the top rates of the data transfer. This bottleneck looks at how to serve a faster CPU through allowing a faster memory access (Null & Lobur, 2014). The computer essentially stores programming instructions, along with the actual data. The von Neumann architecture usually stores both the program code and the data in the memory. There is essentially a single path, which is between the main memory and the CPU, which forces instruction fetch cycle and the execution cycles to be able to share this pathway.
Java is called an interpreted language, yet Java is a compiled language that produces a binary output stream. Explain how this language can be both compiled and interpreted.
The java source code is initially complied into a standard, a platform that is the independent bytecode file. This file is then interpreted at the runtime by a means of machine specific interpreter, which is the java virtual machine (Jain, 2015). The java source code is turned into the binary instructions, much like the ordinary microprocessor machine code. The java runtime interpreter usually executes the compiled java bytecode. The runtime usually performs all normal activities of the hardware processor (Null & Lobur, 2014). It usually executes the stack-based instruction set and manages on the memory just as the operating system.
Why should assembly language be avoided for general application development? Under what circumstances would you argue in favour of using assembly language code for developing an application program?
The assembly programming is usually very difficult to program and understand and more time consuming especially to debug than the higher-level languages. The assembly language programs are also harder when it comes to maintain, since there are more statements for any given amount of the functionality than it is for the equivalent high-level language program (Jain, 2015). When the execution time or perhaps the space are imperative issues, the portions of the code could be rewritten in the assembly language despite many compilers today they do a good job for optimizing on the object code. There are usually small chunks for the codes, which are run many times, and this should be optimized in order to prevent them from becoming bottlenecks. Between ten to twenty percent of the code requires more than eighty percent of the execution time. It is thus this code segment, which should be investigated. In regards to space, in case the programmer is experienced in the assembly language they should cut out everything, which should not be in the code that result to less code (Null & Lobur, 2014). Lastly, it could be that HLL one could be using may not access the operations of the machine or perhaps the device in the manner, which is required. In such a situation, the use of assembly language could be very important.
Explain how DMA (Direct Memory Access) is different from other ways of I/O controlling mechanisms.
The DMA is different from other ways of controlling mechanism since it is efficient in moving large amount of data between the I/O devices and the main memory (Opitz, Krup & Kolbe, 2014). It has the capability of instructing the devices controller in order to move the data between the devices as well as the main memory. The DMA controller offers some few options for transferring the data as compared to the other controller mechanism. These features enable the data to be transferred between the system memory and the peripheral devices, such as the burst transfer as well as the cycle stealing. The burst transfer mode is the fastest way for the transfer memory (Opitz, Krup & Kolbe, 2014). The controller in the DMA assumes both the source and the destination memory address port could transfer as well as accept the information as much quick as possible since the DMA controller can be able to produce them. The cycle stealing mode transfer the data one byte at a time. When the DMA controller after transfer of the data one byte after another releases the control of the system buses by sending of the grant signal to the control bus (Voelter, Deursen, Kolb & Eberle, 2015). Moreover, in the DMA transfer, it is the CPU, which initiates the transfer and do all the other operation while the transfer is in progress, and it can be able to receive an interrupt from the DMA controller once the operation has finished unlike the other controlling mechanisms.
Harchol-Balter, M. (2013). Performance modeling and design of computer systems: queueing theory in action. Cambridge University Press.
Jain, R. K. (2015). Art of Computer Systems Performance Analysis: Techniques for Experimental Design Measurements... Simulation and Modeling. John Wiley.
Lee, D., Subramanian, L., Ausavarungnirun, R., Choi, J., & Mutlu, O. (2015, October). Decoupled Direct Memory Access: Isolating CPU and IO Traffic by Leveraging a Dual- Data-Port DRAM. In Parallel Architecture and Compilation (PACT), 2015 International Conference on (pp. 174-187). IEEE.
Levy, H. M. (2014). Capability-based computer systems. Digital Press.
Madukkarumukumana, R., James, A. S. I., Schoinas, I., & Uhlig, R. (2014). U.S. Patent No .8,706,942. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Null, L., & Lobur, J. (2014). The essentials of computer organization and architecture. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Opitz, N., Krup, H., & Kolbe, L. M. (2014, January). Green Business Process Management--A Definition and Research Framework. In System Sciences (HICSS), 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 3808-3817). IEEE.
Voelter, M., Deursen, A. V., Kolb, B., & Eberle, S. (2015). Using c language extensions for developing embedded software: A case study (Vol. 50, No. 10, pp. 655-674). ACM.
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