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Describe about the Personality?


The personality elaborated in context to the behavioural perspectives including psychosocial conduct and patterns pertaining to the thought process and temperament influenced by the individual’s immediate environment and relationships. Burger (2011:p.4) discusses personality with reference to the behavioural and situational perspectives associated with a high degree of variation among individuals across the globe. Indeed, the behavioural outcomes related to the differences between people in terms of their traits and interpersonal characteristics. The development of personality in an individual influenced by numerous psychosocial circumstances including the patterns of upbringing, family environment, relationship profile, thought process and experiences of life processes.  

John et al (2008:p.7) explores personality in the light of evidence based literature supporting the contention of the cumulative effect of personality traits in developing the behavioural patterns and cognition of the studied population. The psychological parameters including multidisciplinary and psychometric approaches utilized in scientific studies to understand the relationship of cognition and mental hygiene with the personality traits of humans. The clinical trials conducted to evaluate the personality approaches attempted to study the psychosocial profile in terms of behavioural patterns and habits in determining the personality characteristics of the individuals across various developed and developing countries of the world. Matthews et al (2009:p.231) discuss the evidence based relationship of the human personality with the learning outcomes in context to the socialized environment. The personality indeed, not considered solely as a congenital instinct by the perspectives of social constructivism. The person’s innate characteristics influenced by the social discourse, learning and cognition constitute the variable traits attributing to the personality development across the stages of life. The lexical approach for evaluating personality believes in determining the individual characteristics in context to the conscious responses, mood orientation and interpersonal conflicts by utilizing psychometric tools and factorial analysis (Duffy, 2009:p.216). This theory indeed, contends the relevance of clinical aspects in context to the personality development in human population. French (1992:p.330) describes the etiology of cardiovascular and psychosocial diseases in context to the patterns of personality traits evaluated in humans. The personality traits developed while experiencing stressful situations and psychological conflicts profoundly predispose the affected population to psycho-physiological morbidities. However, the psychosocial approach regarding personality focus on evaluating the societal implications on the individual characteristics of people residing in a geographical confinement. The empirical studies conducted by psychologists uncover the social circumstances related to the personal relationships, social utilities and independence determining the elements of personality among the target population (Carducci, 2009:p.199).           

Caprara & Cervone (2000:p.108) describe the relationship of situational factors with the personality development of the individuals exposed to variable circumstances. The circumstantial factors in context to the individual variables result in the development of personality traits under the influence of person’s immediate socio-cultural environments. The social circumstances, mechanisms and trends influence the temperament and cognition of the individuals leading to the outcomes in terms of functionally distinct units attributing to the elements of personality. Weinberg & Gould (2015:p.48) explore the components of personality in terms of situational perspectives. The psychosocial outcomes influenced by various situations affect the levels of personality while affecting the degree of the individual’s flexibility in acclimatizing with the surroundings in terms of physical environment and societal alterations. The psychological traits indeed assign the components of adaptability and perception in context to the situational demand leading to acquisition and consequent display of spontaneous and controlled behavioural patterns displayed by the studied population, as evident from the research studies. The rational traits of personality vary proportionately with the behavioural patterns under the influence of interpersonal and situational circumstances. Caplan (2007:p.320) describes personality as a differential function of the situational elements and temperamental traits leading to the sustained patterns of behaviour following the interactional situations. However, Mills et al (2007:p.97) further elaborate the interactional approach while revealing the organizational environments as the outcomes of the personality traits of the individuals executing the operational processes. Indeed, the patterns of interaction between the people and their immediate environment determine the personality traits in terms of behavioural outcomes influenced by the situational variations. Haslam (2007:p.128) discusses the cognitive perspectives while analyzing the personality outcomes by employing psychoanalytic and biological tools. The cognitive approach contends the perspective of the influence of individual experiences on the subjective patterns of personality in terms of developing skills and knowledge to interpret the situational challenges and proactively perceive the circumstantial outcomes for the acquisition of potential to execute programmed strategic responses for accomplishing the long and short duration goals. 

McMurran & Howard (2009:p.86) illustrate the narcissistic personality in terms of the characteristics including self-admiration and envy under the influence of situational circumstances. Indeed, the lack of self-gratification and social deformations primarily attribute to interpersonal conflicts leading to sustained patterns of rage and empathy among the affected individuals. The development of these pessimistic characteristics leads to the patterns of fragility and behavioural instability resulting in psychosomatic disorders. Ewen (1998:p.1918) discusses the Freudian approach for analysing personality patterns among the target population. The Freudian theory considers personality in terms of the unconsciously acquired traits exhibiting considerable degree of variation among individuals following the psychosocial circumstances. The evidence based clinical literature explores the dark aspects of personality attributing to the destructive characteristics resulting in criminal orientation and antisocial conduct. Indeed, the cause and effect relationship in context to the mental hygiene favours the disposition of the integrative influence of numerous factors on the psychosomatic outcomes of the affected individuals. These outcomes indeed, determine the personality traits of the individuals from the psychosocial perspective. The traits of personality often remain inconsistent and exhibit the state of variability from the onset of infancy until the acquisition of adulthood and the subsequent stages of life. Morris et al (2008:p.453) further describes the psychodynamic perspectives in context to exploring personality under the influence of internal environment and interpersonal conflicts. The contention reveals the philosophy pertaining to the development of uncontrolled personality traits under situational influences. Burger (2011a:pp.6-7) discusses the etiology of the abnormal behavioural outcomes affecting the personality of the affected individuals. Indeed, the psychological disorders including anxiety and depression lead to the patterns of aggression resulting in development of pessimistic personality traits among the people exposed to the stressful psychosocial circumstances.   

Hiriyappa (2012) describes personality as the function of behavioural variation affected by the situational circumstances. The multidimensional models of personality approaches consider the personality characteristics as unconscious responses subjected to the situational influxes. The complex personality traits develop under the influence of intrinsic forces leading to unique and individualized patterns of behaviour, perception and coping strategies in context to the circumstantial and environmental variations. The determination of personality traits following the theoretical abstractions lead to the contention of the influence of biological propensity in personality alterations between the human societies. The research findings evident in the clinical literature reveal the genomic influences on the personality traits under variable environmental situations. The genetic profile of the individuals predisposes them toward predefined patterns of personality, as evident by the clinical literature. The personality characteristics follow the patterns of sustained development leading to psychological gratification and professional enhancement under the influence of optimistic attitude followed by life’s favourable psychosocial circumstances. However, the circumstantial disparity adversely influences the behavioural patterns leading to antisocial orientation and psychological instability among the affected individuals. These psychosocial variations and interpersonal conflicts result in severe personality disorders resulting in unstable relationships and impulsivity leading to borderline personality disorder (Gunderson & Hoffman, 2005:pp.1-6). Therefore, the homeostasis between the personality traits highly warranted from the psychological viewpoint to maintain the state of mental hygiene, psychosomatic wellness, and the ability to cope with stressful situations and adverse circumstances. Engler (2014:pp. 187-88) proposes the contention of empiricism in context to evaluating personality traits in the light of behavioural theories. The concepts of experimental psychology elaborate the behavioural outcomes with respect to the individualized learning processes followed by life’s experiences and circumstances.         

Dweck (2000:p.47) presents the findings from various self-theories to explore the influence of behavioural traits on the personality outcomes of the studied population. Indeed, the strategies pertaining to motivation and enhancement of self-esteem assist in the development of positive personality traits resulting in better cognitive outcomes and increased capabilities to prosper and cope with the stressful conditions. Ellis & Abrams (2009:p. 316) describe Carl Roger’s phenomenological approach in context to the personality traits in humans. The theory considers the personality development process as the direct outcome of the sustained individualized interactions with the immediate environment. The perceptions of experiences and situations, interpersonal relationships and rational approaches to understand and interpret life’s complex circumstances constitute the essential ingredients determining the patterns of personality traits among the human population across the globe. Spillane & Martin (2005:pp.51-52) supports the contention in context to the impact of sociological factors in developing behavioural patterns leading to the consequent personality outcomes among the individuals. Indeed, the temperamental traits, physical environment, religion, perspective, culture, ideology and goals determine the personality outcomes in the socialized environment leading to diversification of personalities among the human population.

Therefore, the variations of personality in humans attribute to the diversification in behavioural outcomes following the gradual and sustained interactions with the socialized environment. The analysis of the personality traits warrants evaluating temperamental and behavioural outcomes in context to the situational influences and societal interactions. Contrarily, the concept of genetic predisposition of individuals in acquiring predefined patterns of personality disregards the contention of acquisition of personality traits following influence of the immediate surroundings. However, the wider perspectives of psychosocial approaches reveal the influence of intrinsic forces and societal implications on the temperamental outcomes leading to interpersonal variations and personality diversification. The environmental variations, cultural influences, mental hygiene, biological profile and experiences profoundly influence the personality traits and behavioural patterns of the individuals in any geographical confinement. The traumatic episodes, physical abnormalities, mental disturbances and domestic violence result in producing behavioural disorders leading to pessimistic attitude and negative personality. Moreover, the factors including cultural ramifications, family environment, financial implications and education level contribute to the behavioural diversity of the human population across the globe. The differences in personality traits followed by environmental and cultural variations provide the scope for conducting analytical studies in further evaluating the cultural and social determinants of human personality. Indeed, the constitutional framework (pertaining to the geographical regions), traditions, societal norms, familial factors, socialization processes, relationship patterns, professional life, circumstantial pressures and cognitive traits are some of the important determinants of behavioural outcomes leading to the variable patterns of personality among humans.



Burger, J 2011, Personality (8th edn.), Wadsworth-Cengage, USA

Burger, J 2011a, Personality (8th edn.), Wadsworth-Cengage, USA

Caplan, G 2007, BTEC National Sport, Book 1 (2nd edn.), Heinemann, UK

Caprara, G & Cervone, D 2000, Personality: Determinants, Dynamics, and Potentials, Cambridge, UK

Carducci, B 2009, The Psychology of Personality: Viewpoints, Research, and Applications (2nd edn.), Wiley-Blackwell, UK

Duffy, V 2009, Digital Human Modeling, Springer, USA

Dweck, C 2000, Self-theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development, Psychology-Press, NY

Ellis, A & Abrams, M 2009, Personality Theories: Critical Perspectives, Sage, USA

Engler, B 2014, Personality Theories (9th edn.), Wadsworth-Cengage, USA

Ewen, R 1998, Personality: A Topical Approach: Theories, Research, Major Controversies, and Emerging Findings, Erlbaum, New Jersey

French, S 1992, Physiotherapy a Psychosocial Approach, Butterworth-Heinemann, London

Gunderson, J & Hoffman, P 2005, Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality Disorder: A Guide for Professionals and Families, American Psychiatric Publishing, USA

Haslam, N 2007, Introduction to Personality and Intelligence, Sage, London

Hiriyappa, B (2012), Development of Personality and Its Theories, Booktango, Bloomington

John, O, Robins, R & Pervin, L 2008, Handbook of Personality, Third Edition: Theory and Research (3rd edn.), New York

Matthews, G, Deary, I & Whiteman, M 2009, Personality Traits (3rd edn.), Cambridge, New York

McMurran, M & Howard, R 2009, Personality, Personality Disorder and Violence: An Evidence Based Approach, Wiley, UK

Mills, J, Bratton, J & Forshaw, C 2007, Organizational Behaviour in a Global Context, Broadview, Toronto

Morris, C & Maisto, A 2008, Understanding Psychology, McGraw-Hill, USA

Spillane, R & Martin, J 2005, Personality and Performance: Foundations for Managerial Psychology, University of New South Wales, Australia

Weinberg, R & Gould, D 2015, Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology (6th edn.), Human Kinetics, USA

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