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The human resource management is one of the most important functions of an organization. The organization selected for the purpose of study is Singapore Airlines. The hub of the airlines is located at “Singapore Changi Airport” (Singaporeair.com, 2016). It has three subsidiaries namely TigerAir, Scoot and SilkAir. The airline is known to be the “second largest airline in the world” in terms of market capitalization (Singaporeair.com, 2016). It aims to grow its capital expenditure by around 66% in the coming years in order to increase its market share (Singaporeair.com, 2016). This report aims to analyze the various human resource issues such as job analysis, job design, recruitment tools and the selection strategies in the selected organization
The job analysis concerns with the process of determination of the particular job requirements as well as job duties in a particular organization (Sanchez & Levine, 2012). It consists of the steps such as outlining the job descriptions as well as job specifications (Sanchez & Levine, 2012). The relative importance of the job duties is analyzed. The processes by which the individual job tasks contribute to the fulfillment of the organizational goals are also identified. The accounts department is selected for this section and the job role is “Chief Accountant”.
The job description identifies the functions, responsibilities, duties of a Chief Accountant. This may refer to the reporting authority of the positions, kind of everyday tasks to be performed and compensation structure (Kersley et al., 2013). There are three basic components of the job description such as brief overview, job title and detailed responsibilities (Kersley et al., 2013). The job duties of an accountant include preparation of the liability, assets and the entries concerning capital account. He is also required to analyze the account related information. The incumbent should document the financial transactions and recommend future financial actions. He needs to prepare “cash flow forecasting” statements and perform the “project cost forecasts”. He is also supposed to review as well as approve the journal entries as well as payment vouchers.
The job specifications concerns with identifying the qualifications required for the job position and the qualities that must be there in the prospective candidate (Phillips & Gully, 2015). This process is essential for determining the fitment of a candidate for the particular job position. The company must determine if a probable finance graduate is suitable for the position of Chief Accountant (Phillips & Gully, 2015). It acts as a statement of the important components like job summary and other requirements to perform a job (Phillips & Gully, 2015). The jobs specifications include minimum degree in the accounting or finance such as ACCA and CPA qualification. He should have minimum of 3 years of work experience in the financial accounting in an airline organization. The candidate should also possess relevant experience in the costing and audit functions. The other skills required in the incumbent include SAP knowledge and the familiarity with SOX and US GAAP.
There are several benefits of interviews. It is of utmost importance to interview several candidates for the position of Chief Accountant. It fosters personal interaction with the candidates, assess the spontaneity of the employees, properly evaluate the candidates and measure the behavioral aspects of the candidates (Berman et al., 2015). The interviews help the company to analyze the competencies of the candidates and decide whether it should hire the particular candidates (Berman et al., 2015). It is also believed to be a transparent mode of communication between the employees and the organization.
The job design concerns with the specification of the methods, contents and relationships of the jobs with other related parameters (Salvendy, 2012). The jobs must satisfy the organizational as well as technological requirements of the organizations. This can be done if the incumbent satisfies the personal requirements (Salvendy, 2012).
The job design is directly related with the motivation of the employees. The nature of the job design affects the motivation level of the employees (Parker, 2014). An effective job design would mean higher job satisfaction among the employees. This would mean that the employees are eager to give their optimum performance in their job. The jobs at the Accounts Department should be designed in such a manner that it impacts the employees in the maximum possible extent. This requires the implementation of job specialization. The jobs of the Accounts Department should be segregated into simplest components. These individual jobs should be allocated to the employees based on their capability (Parker, 2014). This would mean the performance of repetitive tasks by a particular employee which reduces the amount of time required tocomplete the task. The Department should also engage in job rotation and job enrichment for enhancing the motivation level of the employees (Michalos, Makris & Chryssolouris, 2013). The job rotation concern with the movement of the employees from one job position to other job position at frequent intervals so that the employees are satisfied in their current job role. The employees are able to acquire updated skills required to survive in the competitive job market. The job enrichment concerns with more control power of the employees to effectively perform their own tasks (Michalos, Makris & Chryssolouris, 2013). This makes the employees to adopt more responsibility and hence can be converted to motivated employees. The implementation of the flexible work practices and the self-managed teams can prove to be useful in increasing the employee motivation (Michalos, Makris & Chryssolouris, 2013).
The jobs should be designed in such a manner that it is in accordance with the mental capacity of the employees (Fisher et al., 2014). The human brain processes information at a particular speed and in a specific manner. The Accounts Department must take this into account and formulate the design accordingly. There should be sufficient work breaks and proper allotment of the work (Fisher et al., 2014). The Chief Accountant should not be overloaded with work and there should not be excessively long working hours. If there is reasonable information processing requirements then the employees would be able to fulfill the job requirements easily (Fisher et al., 2014). In such cases, there is less possibility of the employees to do mistakes in work.
The recruitment process is a core function of the human resource management. It concerns with the creation of a pool of suitable candidates for the organizational vacant positions (Swider, Zimmerman & Barrick, 2015). It deals with attracting and evaluation of the potential candidates. This process should be carried out in a timely manner. It is the aim of the organizations to perform the recruitment process in a cost-effective manner (Swider, Zimmerman & Barrick, 2015). The two most important sources of recruitment are discussed-
This is an important component of the recruitment process and is most commonly used by the organizations. It is also an effective means of recruiting qualified candidates in the least possible time. The recruitment for the position of the Chief Accountant should be carried out by this method (Chapman & Mayers, 2015). The recruiter usually would find the suitable candidate possessing various skills and experience in various recruitment sources.There are various recruitment sources like job portals, consultancy, advertisements, transfers, promotions, former employees and others (Baum & Kabst 2014). The recruiter shortlists the suitable candidates based on the job description. He contacts the prospective candidate and attracts him with the job opening.If the candidate agrees, then he is being called for a face to face round of interview. The initial conversation is a form of the telephonic interview. This is a preliminary assessment for determining the true potential of the candidate (Chapman & Mayers, 2015). It depends on the recruiter whether the candidate would be called for an interview. The probability of the face to face interview depends on several factors. One of the primary factors is the design of the resume that attracts the employers (Brinkmann, 2014). ). The next step involves the communication skills of the candidates as well as the level of confidence displayed by him (Baum & Kabst 2014). The employer can also attract suitable candidates from the finance background who are working with the competitors. These would give the company a competitive edge.
The second most common method of recruitment is employee referral. This is an internal method of recruiting talented manpower in the organization. It takes suggestions from the current employee networks regarding a qualified candidate (Brown, Setren & Topa, 2012). In this case, the HR department of the organization can contact the existing employees or past employees for any suitable candidate from the Accounts background. They can get to know if the concerned candidate fulfills the job specification. The HR can also engage in background verification of the prospective candidates since the existing employees are well acquainted with them (Brown, Setren & Topa, 2012). The employee referral scheme should come with attractive rewards for the employees who are referring the prospective candidates. This would make it possible for the successful referral program and would motivate the existing employees to find suitable candidate for the organization. There can be cash rewards, public recognition and paid vacation for the employees participating in employee referral programs (Brown, Setren & Topa, 2012). The rewards would be distributed only if the referred candidate joins the organization and stays for a minimum time period. It is also a good idea to give non-cash rewards to the employees (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014). The employee referral program is a cost effective way to fill the open positions.
The selection process starts after the recruitment process is complete. The selection process commences once the procedure of interviews, group discussion and aptitude tests are over (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014). The organization has a wide range of evaluated candidates and needs to select one candidate from all the candidates who are deemed perfect to carry out the job responsibilities.
The selection process for the recruitment of Chief Accountant comprises of two methods namely interview and assessment centers.
This is the most common forms of selection. The shortlisted candidates having relevant qualifications and experience levels would be called for a face to face discussion regarding the particular job (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014). It creates a close rapport between the organization and the employees. There may be one or two interviewers. The objective of this method is to verify the actual skills as well as knowledge possessed by the candidates. The job role is also explained to the candidate and his fitment is also analyzed. Apart from the academic skills and experience, various other factors are also assessed such as integrity, honesty (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014). The behavioral attribute of the candidate is measured and evaluated against the organizational requirements (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014). There can also be an interview panel for making accurate judgment regarding the prospective candidates.
This is a new selection tool that evaluates the psychology of the candidates and their demonstrated behavior in a professional environment. This tool provides an idea whether the particular candidate can adjust with the culture of the particular organization (Gatewood, Field & Barrick, 2015). It measures the behavioral aspects of the candidates under typical situations and arrives at a conclusion. It can include group discussions, debate, role plays and others (Gatewood, Field & Barrick, 2015). The candidate is also able to understand the values of the company.The organization can understand the future performance of the Chief Accountant in the organization.
The human resource department is one of the most important departments of the organization. This paper aims to describe the most important aspects of job analysis, job design, recruitment, selection and job description. The Singapore Airlines is chosen for the purpose of the study and a specific job role has been selected (Chief Accountant) for understanding the key concepts of human resource management. The important techniques of recruitment are discussed such as headhunting and referral. The selection tools like assessment centers and interviews are also elaborated. This paper has given a practical understanding of the key fundamentals of human resource management.
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Welcome to Singapore Airlines | Official Website. (2016). Singaporeair.com. Retrieved 19 September 2016, from https://www.singaporeair.com
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