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Pharmacology: Effect Of Injecting Insulin, Insulin Add in library

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Describe about about complications of diabetes side effect of insulin and effect of injecting insulin?


Insulin lowers the level of blood sugar inside the human system. Insulin is the main hormone, which controls glucose uptake from blood to liver, adipose tissue and muscle cells. Hence, insulin deficiency or receptor insensitivity plays a major function in all types of diabetes. Most common insulin side effects include sudden hypoglycemia, sweating, shaking, blurred vision and fast heartbeat (Bloomgarden, 2004). Sudden hypoglycemia or drop of sugar level may be life threatening. This can damage brain and heart. Other complications of insulin injection are weight gain, swelling, allergic reactions and infection at injection site. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder, in which affected individual suffers from elevated blood sugar level, over a longer period of time. Whether it is type I or type II diabetes, it increases the possibility of enduring complications (Gilor et al., 2010). These are injuries associated with blood vessels, cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, diabetic retinopathy, vision loss, diabetic nephropathy that can cause protein loss, tissue scarring, chronic kidney disease. Diabetic neuropathy is the most common diabetic complication. The indications include pain, tingling, numbness, pain sensation and skin damage. Diabetic foot ulcer is also a common complication and is hard to treat. It seldom requires amputation. Proximal diabetic neuropathy gives rise to muscle weakness and muscle wasting (Vikulova, 2009). Synthetic insulin acts same like human insulin and the modified versions are used in therapies. This insulin replaces normal insulin that human system normally secrets. It helps glucose to gets inside the cells, so that the system can utilize it as energy source. There are various types of synthetic insulin are present in the market, which is administered along with combination of long-acting or medium-acting insulin product.



Bloomgarden, Z. (2004). Diabetes Complications. Diabetes Care, 27(6), pp.1506-1514.

Gilor, C., Graves, T., Graves, T., Campbell, K., Dossin, O., MacNeill, A. and Swanson, K. (2010).Physiology and pharmacology of diabetes therapies in the cat: insulin detemir, insulin glargine, exenatide and the incretin effect. Urbana, IL.: University of Illinois.

Vikulova, O. (2009). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2009 (American Diabetes Association): executive summary. Diabetes mellitus, (1), p.71.


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