$20 Bonus + 25% OFF
Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment at The Lowest Price Now!

Pharmacology: Medical And Biological Research

tag 0 Download6 Pages 1,318 Words tag Add in library Click this icon and make it bookmark in your library to refer it later. GOT IT


Discuss about the Pharmacology for Medical and Biological Research.



Responsible for Ang II generation

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) generates the production of Angiotensin II (Ang II) that mediates the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) effects in the body (Becari et al., 2011). On the other hand, Elastase-2 (ELA-2) which is a chymotrypsin-serine protease elastase family member 2A alternatively generates the production of Ang II in the arteries of rats. RAS activation is accelerated after myocardial infarction, however the mechanisms are unknown that lead to Ang II generaton in resistance arteries (Ahmad et al., 2011). Therefore, the paper by Becari et al., (2017) deals with the study of Elastase-2 (ELA-2) activity contributing to increased Angiotensin II (Ang II) formation in resistant arteries and modulation of cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). They hypothesized that ELA-2 is responsible for the generation of Ang II and leads to cardiac damage in mice and MI. The result studies showed the first evidence for the hypothesis that ELA-2 is responsible for the formation of Ang II in the resistance arteries that is modulated to cardiac function after MI. This illustrates that ELA-2 is responsible for the ACE-independent dysregulation of RAS.

Techniques used



The tail tissue genomic DNA was obtained and amplification of the target gene by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Myocardial infarction was induced by ventral midline skin incision. They were killed by Carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation after 4 weeks of MI surgery.


Fractional shortening and ejection fraction was calculated for the systolic function of left ventricle (LV).


Mesenteric arterial bed removal was done and heart was harvested to calculate the infarct size and heart sections were analysed by video microscopy software Leica Qwin.

Randomization, group size or blinding

Randomization was done to MI or sham surgery in groups; sham WT, ELA-2 KO and MI ELA-2 KO through six independent experiments and data was analysed.

Statistical analysis and normalization

Log transformation was done to analyse the Ang I and Ang II concentration effect curves and data was analysed through nonlinear regression. Maximum contractile and PD2 values were obtained and two-way ANOVA was done for the statistical analysis.

(Table 1- techniques used)


Echocardiographic analysis

The heart images showed that in WT animals, there was a significantly large LV diameter than ELA-2 KO mice during the events of diastole and systole (4.1 ± 0.03 vs. 3.7 ± 0.07 mm, P < 0.05, respectively).This reduction of LV diameter was not observed in infracted mice. The assessment of cardiac function showed that there was decrease in MI and in the ejection fraction in both the strains of infracted and ELA-KO mice. Sham-ELA-2 KO mice showed a lower stroke volume and cardiac output as compared to WT mice. There was decreased cardiac output and stroke volume in WT mice as compared to ELA-2 KO mice. Uehara et al., (2013) also studied that Ang II is activated by RAS as the final physiological product and strong vasopressor that promote tissue remodelling in heart. This mechanism for cardiovascular remodelling is not known that can be helpful in inhibiting the Ang II formation and for the prevention of cardiovascular remodelling (Groutas, Dou & Alliston, 2011).


ELA-2 is functional in resistance arteries of mice

To confirm the functional analysis of ELA-2 in resistance mice arteries, ELA-2 KP mice were induced by chymostatin and no responses were obtained. However, there was significant attenuation of Ang I-induced maximal response in sham-WT mice. There was a rightward-shift of the concentration curve of Ang I due to chymostatin induction. This data clearly illustrated that Ang II generation was induced by serine proteases in resistance mesenteric arteries of mice and in turn, ELA-2 is the major driving reason for the generation of Ang-II enzyme in the arteries.

ELA-2 contribution to Ang-I in mesenteric resistance arteries of mice to MI

To confirm the ELA-2 contribution to Ang-I, Ang II and Ang I concentration curves were subjected to MI or sham-surgery. The concentration response curve shifted to left of Ang I with maximum effect in WT mice mesenteric arteries. There was also significant increase in the concentration of Ang I in WT mice as compared sham-Wt mice. This data confirmed that MI is strongly associated with increased RAS activation. Therefore, this paper provided the first evidence for the ELA-2 responsible for Ang II increased activity in mesenteric resistance arteries upon MI.

Ang I conversion to Ang II by ACE subjected to MI

There was rightward-shift in Ang I concentration response curves of mesenteric arteries when subjected Captopril. In ELA-2 KO mice, there was ACE-independent dysregulation of RAS in MI and it might be in other cardiovascular diseases. There is RAS hyperactivity associated with heart failure and there was significant increase in the RAS expression levels due to MI including myocardium (Santos et al., 2013). In a study conducted by Becari, Oliveira & Salgado, (2011) showed that cardiac changes in infracted mice was similar to humans that highlights the importance of ELA-2 as the driving factor for Ang I generation at an increased level.

The significance of the study is that the mechanism through which Ang II is converted from Ang I and synthesized in human tissues can be helpful in the pharmacology in inhibiting local Ang II formation and further MI (Thatcher et al., 2014). Therefore, this elucidation of ELA-2 being the contributor to the Ang II formation can be a great strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and remodelling as in MI.

From the above-obtained results, it can be inferred that ELA-2 is the contributor to vascular Ang II increased formation. It may also contribute to the cardiac dysfunctioning after MI. This implies that ELA-2 enzyme is the key player in the ACE-independent RAS dysregulation. This study confirmed that there is increased RAS activation in vascular beds as there was augmented Ang-1 induction in resistance arteries of sham-mice to MI. This is the first evidence provided by this study where MI did not affect the Ang I contractile responses that increased the generation of Ang-II upon MI. There is also significant cardiac sympathovagal balance dysregulation in ELA-2 KO mice along with increased parasympathetic and decreased sympathetic modulation. There was low cardiac output, heart rate, reduced LV and stroke volume that are interesting findings of this study adding to the existing knowledge of overall systemic or autonomic dysregulation in mesenteric nerves. This data indicated that ELA-2 plays the pivotal role in the peripheral resistance and basal cardiac function.



Ahmad, S., Simmons, T., Varagic, J., Moniwa, N., Chappell, M. C., & Ferrario, C. M. (2011). Chymase-dependent generation of angiotensin II from angiotensin-(1-12) in human atrial tissue. PloS one, 6(12), e28501.

Becari, C., Oliveira, E. B., & Salgado, M. C. O. (2011). Alternative pathways for angiotensin II generation in the cardiovascular system. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 44(9), 914-919.

Becari, C., Silva, M. A., Durand, M. T., Prado, C. M., Oliveira, E. B., Ribeiro, M. S., ... & Tostes, R. C. (2017). Elastase?2, an angiotensin II?generating enzyme, contributes to increased angiotensin II in resistance arteries of mice with myocardial infarction. British Journal of Pharmacology, 174(10), 1104-1115.

Becari, C., Teixeira, F. R., Oliveira, E. B., & Salgado, M. C. O. (2011). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition augments the expression of rat elastase-2, an angiotensin II-forming enzyme. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 301(2), H565-H570.

Groutas, W. C., Dou, D., & Alliston, K. R. (2011). Neutrophil elastase inhibitors. Expert opinion on therapeutic patents, 21(3), 339-354.

Santos, R. A., Ferreira, A. J., Verano-Braga, T., & Bader, M. (2013). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, angiotensin-(1–7) and Mas: new players of the renin–angiotensin system. Journal of Endocrinology, 216(2), R1-R17.

Thatcher, S. E., Zhang, X., Howatt, D. A., Yiannikouris, F., Gurley, S. B., Ennis, T., ... & Cassis, L. A. (2014). Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Decreases Formation and Severity of Angiotensin II–Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology, ATVBAHA-114.

Uehara, Y., Miura, S. I., Yahiro, E., & Saku, K. (2013). Non-ACE pathway-induced angiotensin II production. Current pharmaceutical design, 19(17), 3054-3059.


Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2018). Pharmacology: Medical And Biological Research. Retrieved from

"Pharmacology: Medical And Biological Research." My Assignment Help, 2018,

My Assignment Help (2018) Pharmacology: Medical And Biological Research [Online]. Available from:
[Accessed 29 March 2020].

My Assignment Help. 'Pharmacology: Medical And Biological Research' (My Assignment Help, 2018) <> accessed 29 March 2020.

My Assignment Help. Pharmacology: Medical And Biological Research [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2018 [cited 29 March 2020]. Available from: has become one of the leading assignment help provider in New York City and Boston. We provide top class auditing assignment help. Not only auditing, but we also cover more than 100 subjects and our writers deal with all types of assignments with utmost expertise. To make writing process faster and accurate, we have segmented our assignment experts' teams as per their expertise on writing different types of assignments. We guaranteed that students who buy our assignment online get solutions worth their investment.

Latest Management Samples

UUMG8300 Leading Business And Organisational Change

Download : 0 | Page : 1
  • Course Code: UUMG8300
  • University: UUNZ Institute Of Business
  • Country: New Zealand

Answer: Degree To Which Stakeholders Trust Those Leading The Change Unitech is one of the leading academic aspirants in contemporary and applied learning and it need to change with time and situations to enable better futures to students, enterprises and communities as a whole Carnall (2018). Though change is a complex process but still it is obvious for Unitec. The company stakeholders should rely on communication for managing the changes...

Read More arrow

MKT501 Marketing For Proper Designing,Researching And Advertising

Download : 0 | Pages : 15
  • Course Code: MKT501
  • University: Charles Sturt University
  • Country: Australia

Answer: Introduction Marketing is considered to a fundamental part of a business. It is founded on searching the suitable customer after the creation of an attractive statement regarding the product of service. The marketing of a product requires proper designing, researching and advertising in order to guarantee the success of the business. It is rather a combination of few strategies which are designed to broaden the capacities of the produ...

Read More arrow

BUSN20017 Effective Business Communication For Extemporaneous And Impromptu

Download : 0 | Pages : 9

Answer: Introduction The scope of effective communication in business is massive. In the unit we learnt about various concepts of effective business communication. I have elaborated about the significance of the concepts that were discussed. I have stressed on the importance of public speaking as it holds great importance in my future career path. Along with that I have provided a literature review of the same, in addition to another concept ...

Read More arrow

B01BAVA320 Busniess Analysis And Valuation 2

Download : 0 | Pages : 5

Answer: Competitive forces facing Qantas, using the Porter’s ‘five forces’ framework Porters’ five forces model consists of five components which will be analyzed to understand the current state of competition in airline industry of Australia. Bargaining power of Buyer: Australian airline industry is highly competitive offering service to customers maintaining a competitive pricing strategy. In most of the cases, they p...

Read More arrow

BTX3110 International Trade Law For Quality And Safety Processes

Download : 0 | Pages : 10

Answer: The dairy industry in Australia is one of the major rural industries of the country. On the basis of the farm gate value of production, industry has been ranked at third place falling behind beef and wheat industries. The 6,128 dairy farmers of Australia produce nearly 9.5 billion litres of milk. Out of this production, approximately 35% of it is exported. In this way commit includes a wide range of value added and innovative dairy pro...

Read More arrow Tags: Australia New South Wales Management tourism management University of New South Wales 

Save Time & improve Grades

Just share your requirements and get customized solutions on time.

We will use e-mail only for:

arrow Communication regarding your orders

arrow To send you invoices, and other billing info

arrow To provide you with information of offers and other benefits




Overall Rating



Our Amazing Features


On Time Delivery

Our writers make sure that all orders are submitted, prior to the deadline.


Plagiarism Free Work

Using reliable plagiarism detection software, only provide customized 100 percent original papers.


24 X 7 Live Help

Feel free to contact our assignment writing services any time via phone, email or live chat.


Services For All Subjects

Our writers can provide you professional writing assistance on any subject at any level.


Best Price Guarantee

Our best price guarantee ensures that the features we offer cannot be matched by any of the competitors.

Our Experts

Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

203 Order Completed

97% Response Time

Richard Alpert

PhD in Psychology

London, United Kingdom

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

93 Order Completed

100% Response Time

Jackson Mitchell

MiM (Masters in Management) in Supply Chain Management

New Jersey, United States

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

529 Order Completed

95% Response Time

Ivan Blank

PhD in Functional Human Biology

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 4/5

2594 Order Completed

95% Response Time

Michael Johnson

Masters of MSc in Economics

Washington, United States

Hire Me

FREE Tools


Plagiarism Checker

Get all your documents checked for plagiarism or duplicacy with us.


Essay Typer

Get different kinds of essays typed in minutes with clicks.


GPA Calculator

Calculate your semester grades and cumulative GPa with our GPA Calculator.


Chemical Equation Balancer

Balance any chemical equation in minutes just by entering the formula.


Word Counter & Page Calculator

Calculate the number of words and number of pages of all your academic documents.

Refer Just 5 Friends to Earn More than $2000

Check your estimated earning as per your ability




Your Approx Earning

Live Review

Our Mission Client Satisfaction

I had a good mark was done professionally and referenced ...


User Id: 356772 - 28 Mar 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

A very good job done. However, it took the expert so long to get it right. Remember my due date for this project was 22nd of March, 2020 and I got the right delivery on the 28th of March,2020.


User Id: 375353 - 28 Mar 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

They are genuine. And respond to all the queries quickly .And I received my assignment within specified time.


User Id: 388721 - 28 Mar 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Unable to provide the full feedback now as Lecturer have not responded. As of now, I am satisfied with the service provided and hope to have a good response from Lecturer. TQ


User Id: 331877 - 28 Mar 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating
callback request mobile
Have any Query?