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Question:

1. Arguments from real life

(a) Describe two scientific arguments that use analogy that you have encountered in your studies or reading, or in conversation, or in the media or online. In each case, be sure to mention the argument’s conclusion, the analogy, and how the comparison (analogy) was being used to support the conclusion.

(b) Describe one fallacious argument by analogy that you have encountered in your reading, or in conversation, or in the media or advertising, or online—be sure to mention the analogy and the conclusion it was supposed to support. Which fallacy of analogy did it commit and why is it a fallacy?

(c) Describe a scientific argument that uses an analogy, but which is subject to

counter-analogy.

  • Be sure to mention the argument’s conclusion and the analogy being used to support it;
  • Explain how that analogy is meant to support the conclusion;(
  • Explain the counter-analogy that has been raised against the argument, and what the counter-analogy is intended to show.

(d) Describe a real-life argument you have encountered in which problematic use of language results in a fallacy being committed.

  • What was the argument?
  • What was problematic about the language it used? 
  • What was the fallacy that resulted from this problematic language? 
2. Using the recommended detailed method for analysing and evaluating arguments that use analogy, analyse and evaluate the following argument. In your evaluation of the argument, mention and explain the relevance of any counter- considerations you think the argument should have addressed; and if you think any fallacy is committed, mention and explain it in your evaluation.

Although we may feel sympathetic toward refugees who try to enter Australia illegally, we must remember that Australia is like a lifeboat and its resources are limited, like the provisions in a lifeboat. People trying to enter Australia illegally are a serious risk to our nation, just as there is a serious risk to the occupants of a lifeboat if it is allowed to become overloaded. We should therefore turn away all who try to enter Australia illegally as refugees.

3. Definitions

For each of the following passages, identify the type of definition being used, say whether the definition is acceptable or unacceptable, and justify your answer.

(i) You and I are not really disagreeing. Each of us does say the other is wrong, but at least we’re still talking to each other.

(ii) Universities are institutions of tertiary education.

(iii) The winner of this relay race will be the team that completes the greatest number of laps of the track in one hour.

 

  1. Problematic Uses of Language

(i) From the options below, select the one which correctly describes the following passage: ‘We shouldn’t worry about tsunamis; after all, they’re just waves.’

a) This statement does not involve any problematic use of language.

b) This statement is problematic because it is vague.

c) This statement is problematic because it is ambiguous.

d) This statement is problematic because it uses emotionally charged language

e) This statement is problematic because it uses euphemism

(ii) From the options below, select the one which correctly describes the following passage: ‘Because it’s nothing but a theory, the theory of relativity should not be taken seriously.’

a) This statement does not involve any problematic use of language.

b) This statement is problematic because of vagueness.

c) This statement is problematic because of ambiguity.

d) This statement is problematic because it uses emotionally charged language.

e) This statement is problematic because it uses euphemism.

(iii) From the options below, select the one which correctly describes the following passage: ‘Excessive use of the photocopier is not permitted.’

a) This statement does not use any problematic language.

b) This statement is ambiguous.

c) This statement is vague.

d) This statement is too emotional.

e) This statement relies on euphem

 
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