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Philosophical Ethics Perspectives

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Questions:

1.Consider the ethical dilemma surrounding deployment of artificial intelligence (AI) in Australian industries?
 
2.Moor believes that only an ethical approach that combines considerations of consequences of action with more traditional deontological considerations of duties, rights, and justice can provide us with a defensible ethical theory?
 
3.Compare and contrast the code of ethics of any two computing professional bodies, such as, IEEE Computer Society, Australian Computer Society etc?
 
 

Answers:

1. The AI or “Artificial intelligence” has been embraced by the “big-business” of Australia. Almost two-third of the businesses has planned to replace the jobs. Some have replaced them already. The AI has been that sect of modern technology that has imposed intelligent machines. These machines have been reacting as well as working like the human beings. Further, they have been utilized for speech recognition, problem solving and planning (Burton et al., 2017).

The research arranged by Infosys’s “technology consultant” has claimed that huge number of organizations has invested about eight million dollars and more annually in Australia. This technology has helped in “automatic ordering” of delivering parcels, pharmaceuticals in the hospitals and driverless tractors in the farms (Kimppa, Heimo & Harviainen, 2016). The banks on the other hand also used AI for forecasting the reply of the investors. The mining companies have made use of the “predictive analysis”. Thus has been done to decrease the down breaking of machines with schedule maintenance. Despite this, the companies have been grappling about the safety of jobs and shortage of technical skills. These have been needed to implement the AI.  Thus the most significant obstacles for implementation AI have been on the basis of ethics. It indicates where, how and when the AIs must be deployed (Burton et al., 2016). Whether AI has any effect on human morale or not is also needed to be determined. The firms need to re-skill the employees such that they have been able to involve on the changing scenario of the workplace.

 


However the development of AI machines with incorporation of the traditions of philosophy has been not so easy. The effective dilemmas as faced have been that the employees might lose their jobs as a result of automation. The system has been helping the firms to be more effective in production than replacing the people. According to various researches and experiences, this has been a clearly proved that AI has been providing more number of jobs than losing it. Next fear that generates in people’s mind has been that AI might create huge spare time for people (Singer, 2015). The scenario would be never that, because the difference between the leisure time and engaged activities has been reducing. This is due to the fact that the activities could be done at anytime and anywhere from the world.

The requirement of the people and the organizations to remain stable in the competition has resulted in more engagement of people. This phenomenon of the present global market scenario has been increasing much more exponentially than the past. Further the technology has been contributing to the development of technology with trends. The hope with AI has been leading to the fact the agents who has been automated could take some tasks (Kernaghan, 2014). This should result in delivering leisure time for the employees.

There have been further claims arising that the technology could be utilized in a negative way leading to destruction by unnecessary means. This can result in the extinction of human beings. The government should leverage the technology during the fifth against terrorism and crimes as shown by the disclosures. In spite of that, the emergence of AI has not resulted in any of such catastrophe.

The AI has laid its contribution to the evolution of intellect of the mankind continuously. The process in which this outstanding technology of today might be implemented does not depend on the subject of its study, research or application. The main problem lies in the intention of the human beings, who have the full independence of how to impose any weapons. There lies no guarantee that without AI terrorism and crimes could be controlled. There has been no space to think that without AI the sustaining of human civilization could be carried successfully.

 


2.
James Moor was a professor at the Dartmouth College (Taddeo & Buchanan, 2015). He was one of the most renowned professor in the college. He believed that the computer is tool that can be of any shape and size and can perform almost every type of tasks. By every task he meant that the computer could perform the tasks that were thought to be impossible. The professor thought the field of computer and information was in need of some type of ethical theories. The professor thought that these theories should also be valid outside the field of technology and communications. The theories that were thought of consisted of the aspects of the justification theory and the deontological theory that are used in the analysis of any kind of ethical issue. For this, the professor proposed the “Just-consequentialists theory” of ethics. The theory basically emphasized on the consequences of the policies that is it judged weather the policies were properly judged or not. The theory was transformed into both the practical and the theoretical form. So it could be used to judge both the practical and the theoretical aspect of any problems related to ethics in the field of information technology and communication technology.

The main features of the framework that was by professor Moore was (Hall, 2014):

  1. The policy had gone through different the instances of the different kind of policies and made observations from the neutral point of view. The policies had some conditions in order to consider it as ethical. The conditions of the policy were:
    • A policy can be considered as an ethical one if it does not cause any kind of harm to certain person or a group of people.
    • A policy would be ethical if the rights of the individuals are maintained and the policy fulfills all the duties.
  2. From observation of the policies, obtaining and framing the appropriate policy was done at a later stage. The policies are to be ranked according to the harms and the advantages of the policies. The policy should ensure that:
    • The weighing of the case is done keeping in mind the best and the worst outcomes of the policies on the ethics.
    • The distinction in between the values and moral of the ethics and the facts are to done before deciding about the ethical policies that is to be decided.
 


Professor Moor had given indication that the proper habits of a certain character such as helpfulness, truthfulness, justice, honesty, trustworthiness, kindness and generosity have evolved with the time. These type of characteristics are very essential to behave morally. It is stated by Professor Moor that if all these pre requisite characteristics are not present a person it would be very difficult for that person to carry out all the steps of the Moor model successfully. If such a case arises, then elements of the virtue ethics have been described in the Moor Model for the person to follow.

According to the discussions made by Moor, rational discussions of the policies that are relevant to the theory were possible and in addition to this, the discussions were highly desirable despite of the disagreement of the abilities of the policies in various aspects. Moor showed that the disagreements are mainly due to the distinctions of the fact of the case rather than the distinctions in the values. The disagreements in the policy that Moor proposed would be changing greatly due to the fact that the actual debate was regarding the security of the MP3 files. For example the downloading of the MP3 file is taken. The downloading of the MP3 file is done basically to preview them. Hence, as a consequence of the large amount of downloads, the sales of the MP3 files have increased and the quality of the files have decreased.

Hence, by assessing the duty, rights and the consequences policy a person can obtain a clear ideas about the moral implications. Therefore Moor model does not provide a very clear idea when an issue is viewed from different angles.

 


3.
The IEEE and the Australian Computer Society are two distinct professional bodies of computing in Australia (Cappello et al., 2014).

The comparison in between the Code of ethics of both the computing bodies (Kazakov, Krotzsh & Simancik, 2014):

  1. Both the bodies provide equal importance to the role of ethics in their professional sectors.
  2. Both the bodies link to the responsibilities of the owner at all the platforms. For example a person performing a certain operation need to perform the activity under the brand of the owner. Hence, the representation of the “Who?” has been done successfully in the code of ethics of both the bodies.
  3. There are three codes of ethics: the justification theory, the virtue ethics and the deontology. But there has be no mention of these codes in either of the body’s code of ethics.
  4. Although, these code of ethics can be interpreted from the other specified code of ethics that are mentioned in both the bodies.

In addition to this the distinction in between the code of ethics of both the bodies are done as the following (Krier et al., 2014):

  1. In IEEE CS the aspect of the relationship that is aiming towards the business leadership goals and the responsibilities of the stakeholders are used for contributing towards the well-being of the society and the people. In the bodies code of ethics the main concern is regarding the human rights and providing the respect to different culture. In addition to this there is also provision for the security threats and health issues. Whereas, for ACS Upholding and the increasing the effectiveness, honor and dignity of the Information Technology is more important. It is done by the maintenance of the high level of competence and ethical conduct. In addition to this the integrities of the responsibility is also maintained.
  2. The IEEE CS regulate and supports all the policies that are supporting the dignity of the user and various other sectors that are being harmed by the computer systems. Whereas in ACS code of ethics the morality lies in the action with the professional roles and integrating it while dealing with the clients, employees and the employers.
  3. In respect to the work culture and the stakeholder relationships the code of ethics of both the bodies differ a great deal. The IEEE it is involved with providing respect to others and providing the same level of justice to all the people. But, the ACS is concerned with making the person take the oath for developing the feeling to satisfaction and personal competence. It is also mentioned that one must not harm the reputation of others to enhance self-reputation.
  4. The change in atmosphere for the obstructive processes also have distinct set of codes for both the bodies. The IEEE defines specific training programs that are very essential but should not be explicitly available. But in ACS it has been defined that professional distance should be maintained from the individuals who are not accepted to the society due social misconduct or unethical behaviors.
  5. In IEEE it is believed that the well-being of a human being would be involving secure and natural environment. As a result the developers or the programmers developing the programs should be aware of the potential harms that they would be causing to the society and environments due to the programs. But, the ACS the code of ethics is more concerned with the effect of the developers program on the Information Technologies environments.

References

Burton, E., Goldsmith, J., & Mattei, N. (2016, March). Using “The Machine Stops” for Teaching Ethics in Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science. In Workshops at the Thirtieth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence.

Burton, E., Goldsmith, J., Koenig, S., Kuipers, B., Mattei, N., & Walsh, T. (2017). Ethical Considerations in Artificial Intelligence Courses. arXiv preprint arXiv:1701.07769.

Cappello, F., Geist, A., Gropp, W., Kale, S., Kramer, B., & Snir, M. (2014). Toward exascale resilience: 2014 update. Supercomputing frontiers and innovations, 1(1), 5-28.

Chambon, V., Moore, J. W., & Haggard, P. (2015). TMS stimulation over the inferior parietal cortex disrupts prospective sense of agency. Brain Structure and Function, 220(6), 3627-3639.

COMMISSIONERS, C. O. (2013). CODE OF ETHICS.

Hall, B. R. (2014). A synthesized definition of computer ethics. ACM SIGCAS Computers and Society, 44(3), 21-35.

Kazakov, Y., Krötzsch, M., & Siman?ík, F. (2014). The incredible ELK. Journal of Automated Reasoning, 53(1), 1-61.

Kernaghan, K. (2014). Digital dilemmas: Values, ethics and information technology. Canadian Public Administration, 57(2), 295-317.

Kimppa, K. K., Heimo, O. I., & Harviainen, J. T. (2016). First dose is always freemium. ACM SIGCAS Computers and Society, 45(3), 132-137.

Krier, P., Parman, A., Piercy, D., Erlandson, J., Keele, R., Hill, S. L., & Erlandson, J. (2014). CODE OF ETHICS.

Martin, J., & Christin, N. (2016). Ethics in cryptomarket research. International Journal of Drug Policy, 35, 84-91.

Martin, S. R., Kish-Gephart, J. J., & Detert, J. R. (2014). Blind forces: Ethical infrastructures and moral disengagement in organizations. Organizational Psychology Review, 4(4), 295-325.

Singer, A. E. (2015). Corporate moral agency and artificial intelligence. In Human Rights and Ethics: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (pp. 505-517). IGI Global.

Taddeo, M., & Buchanan, E. (2015). Information Societies, Ethical Enquiries. Philosophy & Technology, 28(1), 5.

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