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The purpose of this essay is to evaluate the key challenges of city planning in context of climate change. Climate change influences infrastructure of a city from different aspects such as environmental risk and dynamic climate risk. There are various issues faced by the government while building a planned city. Environmental change prevents the government from continuously developing infrastructure of cities. Instead, government needs to take environmental measures for maintaining the infrastructure (Marcotullio 2015). It means development of cities becoming the most difficult job for the government. The study topic selected in this paper will help to identify the most effective environmental measures for making a city more structured. Apart from that, environmental measures will be identified, which can help the government to overcome such issues (Lennon 2015). The focus of this study will be to explore and document the way in which Canberra has adopted various environmental measures. The primary issue of this research topic is the vulnerability of climate change faced by the government. From the beginning of civilization, people are moving towards development and apparently, climate change takes place. This paper will analyze the key challenges of city planning caused by environment change (Youngsteadt et al. 2015). A cohesive research on Canberra’s climate change will help to derive an accurate research outcome.
Canberra is the capital of Australia, which has 395,000 populations. Moreover, this is one of the largest inland cities of Australia, which is exactly located at northern end of the country. The city was established in 1913 and since then government has implemented various strategy for making the city a planned city. The total are covered by the city is 2,431 km2. The city consists of 60% greenery, which is highly environmentally viable. Additionally, government has taken many measures for preventing catastrophic climate change and its negative impact on the city (Mokany et al. 2015). Following are the previous and present activities of the government along with the future planning for preventing damage due to climate change.
Previous activities undertaken by government were limited to increase renewable resources and reducing global warming. The government of Australia has structures an intergovernmental panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in order to improve environmental conduction. In 2007, the association has taken an agenda for reducing global warming 2 degree (Hudson 2015). The objective of government was to reduce the global warming by 80% within 2050. In order to reduce global warming, the government was planned to reduce carbon emission and emission of other catastrophic elements. Un 2012, the government has implemented a new strategy for improving environment of Canberra (Dunn et al. 2015). In this strategy, the major goal was to increase use of renewable resources. The aim was to achieve 90% use of renewable resources. Moreover, the initiative taken by government for maintaining energy efficiency was effective in terms of city planning (Dunn, Lindesay and Howden 2015). Previous researches reviled that climate change affects the people of urban areas most significantly. In previous days, Canberra was a city, which was under development and therefore, it was very difficult to prevent those climate changes and improve structure of the city (den Exter, Lenhart and Kern 2015). Climate change may cause of different natural calamities for which an urban city can face different short of difficulties such as flood and earthquake. Now, the goal of the government was to develop the city for preventing such natural calamities along with the reason behind climate change (Lau et al. 2015).
Presently, the government of Australia focuses on developing the city by implementing effective codes and standards. The previous strategies were developed for preventing the environmental damages (Priemus and Davoudi 2016). Currently, the government has planned to engage 100 renewable resources by 2020. Designing the urban land helps the government to understand the climate issues more cohesively. In order to reduce negative impact of climate change, the government has considered the transport emission. There are different has been implemented for reducing transport emission and therefore, the environmental code and policies are engaged over last few years (Broto, Boyd and Ensor 2015). Moreover, government has implemented innovation technologies for gathering emission data, which helps the government to monitor the environmental change of the city. The reason behind adopting technological support is to improve the previous approach of environmental protection. In previous days, government was unable to document all the activities and its impact, which can prevent the future research and development (De Paola et al. 2015).
Canberra is sustainably growing towards the objectives and has achieved the objectives very well. The strategy of increasing use of renewable resources by 2020 is a successful movement. The government is about to achieve this objectives within next four years (Youngsteadt et al. 2015). Moreover, the emission reduction target of the city is successful and most effective in compare with the other cities. When it comes to the 2050 emission reduction target, Canberra is the world’s leader (Mokany et al. 2015). The government is very close to achieve the entire objectives by 2050. Currently, the major emission savings is influences by electricity industry (Broto, Boyd and Ensor 2015). Government of Australia has defined many codes and standards for improving the climate even better. The strategies and implementation of climate control. The future planning of the government is to maintain a sustainable environmental stability.
Conducting research on this topic will revile the possible challenges of climate change. Apart from that, this study will show how the environmental measures of government reduce negative impact of the climate change and how it improves the city planning even better. The government of Australia has implanted different codes and strategies for prevention climate change; however, innovative technology has a positive impact on sustainability of the plan. In order to build a constructive city, the government should document the progress of the implemented strategies (Priemus and Davoudi 2016). In this manner, it will be possible to build new strategies for developing new environmental measures. As per the previous and present approach of government, it can be assumed that government will be able to achieve their environmental sustainability plan. However, this research has reviled that only electricity sector is avoiding energy misuse (den Exter, Lenhart and Kern 2015). The other industries are not participating to support governmental strategies. Therefore, the government needs to take a proactive approach in which most of the industries can increase use of renewable resources.
After completing this study, it can be concluded that government of Australia has implemented different strategies for improving environmental quality. The major goal of the government is to plan a constructive city for Canberra, which is the capital of Australia. The observation of governmental approach shows that the objectives for preventing environmental damage are progressive. On the other hand, the future planning for the government for maintaining environmental sustainability needs to be more objectives oriented. Increasing the use of renewable resources is the aim of the government, which is very close to the success. Canberra has almost achieved 90% use of renewable resources. On the other hand, the strategy of reducing global warming is one of the most important movements of government. The government focuses on transport emission for achieving the overall goal. This research will show the challenges faced by the government while reducing negative environmental impact. The barriers of building a constructive city due to climate change. As the climate change is the most common issue, which government face during city planning, this research will identify the potential threat and recommend possible solutions.
Broto, V.C., Boyd, E. and Ensor, J., 2015. Participatory urban planning for climate change adaptation in coastal cities: lessons from a pilot experience in Maputo, Mozambique. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 13, pp.11-18.
De Paola, F., Galdiero, E., Giugni, M. and Pugliese, F., 2015. Sustainable development of storm-water systems in African cities considering climate change. Procedia Engineering, 119, pp.1181-1191.
den Exter, R., Lenhart, J. and Kern, K., 2015. Governing climate change in Dutch cities: anchoring local climate strategies in organisation, policy and practical implementation. Local Environment, 20(9), pp.1062-1080.
Dunn, M.R., Lindesay, J.A. and Howden, M., 2015. Spatial and temporal scales of future climate information for climate change adaptation in viticulture: a case study of user needs in the Australian winegrape sector.Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 21(2), pp.226-239.
Hudson, M., 2015. Global warming and climate change: what Australia knew and buried… then framed a new reality for the public, by Maria Taylor, Canberra, Australian National University Press, 2014, ix+ 215 pp.; no index.), AUS $28.00 (GST inclusive), ISBN 9781925021905 (print version), ISBN 9781925021912 (online). Environmental Politics, 24(6), pp.1063-1064.
Lau, K.K.L., Lindberg, F., Rayner, D. and Thorsson, S., 2015. The effect of urban geometry on mean radiant temperature under future climate change: a study of three European cities. International journal of biometeorology, 59(7), pp.799-814.
Lennon, M., 2015. Cities and Climate Change. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 17(1), pp.146-148.
Marcotullio, P.J., 2015. Book review: Cities and Climate Change. Progress in Human Geography, 39(2), pp.239-242.
Mokany, K., Thomson, J.J., Lynch, A.J.J., Jordan, G.J. and Ferrier, S., 2015. Linking changes in community composition and function under climate change. Ecological Applications, 25(8), pp.2132-2141.
Priemus, H. and Davoudi, S. eds., 2016. Climate change and sustainable cities. Routledge.
Youngsteadt, E., Dale, A.G., Terando, A.J., Dunn, R.R. and Frank, S.D., 2015. Do cities simulate climate change? A comparison of herbivore response to urban and global warming. Global change biology, 21(1), pp.97-105.
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