$20 Bonus + 25% OFF
Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment at The Lowest Price Now!

Pneumonia: Aetiology And Pathophysiology

tag 0 Download3 Pages / 676 Words tag Add in library Click this icon and make it bookmark in your library to refer it later. GOT IT


Discuss about the Pneumonia for Aetiology and Pathophysiology.



The Aetiology of Bacterial Pneumonia

The inflammation of alveoli in the lungs is known as Pneumonia. Breathing problem associated with cough, high fever, lethargy, and feeling of light headedness is common. The most common cause of pneumonia during pregnancy is Community acquired pneumonia. CAP is responsible for many deaths in the Asian continent (Lozano et al, 2010). The main causal organisms of community acquired pneumonia are bacteria like streptococcus pneumonia, staphylococcus aureus, mycoplasma pneumonia, heamophilus influenza and chlamydophila pneumoniae ¸legionella pneumoniae, etc.

Gram positive bacteria responsible for causing pneumonia includes mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae-it is one of the most common causal organisms of pneumonia. (Peto et al, 2014). It is a gram positive facultative anaerobe. It resides in the nasopharynx and affects the respiratory tract, nasal cavity and sinuses in case of infection. The major risk of infection is for older people and people with chronic infection. Severe infection could lead to upper respiratory disorders.Staphylococcus aureus mainly infect the drug abusers or patients with deliberate disease and chronic diseases. The infection makes it way to the lungs through blood.Legionella pneumophilla is present mainly in warm and still water and infects in summer. It could be present in air conditioning systems and contaminated water system.

Gram negative bacteria infect people who have immunodeficiency or those who get hospitalized.  Previous antibiotic treatment is also a major factor. Klebsiella pneumoniae infect people suffering from diabetes, COPD or those who are alcoholic. (Musher, D. M. and Thorner, A. R., 2012, Oct 23). Haemophilus influenza infects mainly in winter infecting the upper respiratory tract. (Porth and Bruyere, H J., 2009). Patients having COPD, with low immunity asthma or deliberate diseases are mainly at risk.


Pathophysiology of Bacterial Pneumonia

 Normally bacteria are present in the respiratory tract. To cause pneumonia the bacteria show high growth rate, low immunity or presence of virulent forms of the organism. The pathogenic bacteria make it way to the alveoli lung infection. Low immunity is also a major factor for the infection. The alveolar macrophages fail to act against the virulent pathogens causing a severe infection. Some bacteria get adhered to the tracheal lining making it difficult to clear them off. (Porth and Bruyere, H. J., 2009).

Bacteria may show high virulence rate due to development of resistance to the common antibiotics. Mutative form with a better resistance can create difficulty in treatment. Bacterial flagella and cilia helps in the movement of the bacteria, thus spreading the infection becomes easy for the pathogen. Presence of spore or capsules gives advantages to the bacteria to be resistant against the immune system of the person. (Kamangar, N. 2015, Oct 8). Inflammation in the lower respiratory tract occurs on the proliferation of the infection. The immune cells causing the inflammation start accumulating in the alveoli and fill the air sac with pus which affects the respiration

The possible reasons for a person to acquire the disease include the respiratory route where the pathogen is inhaled from the contaminated surroundings. It could be contagious, spreading from an infected person to those who come in contact. Also in the drug abuser the route is through blood supply system. Age, mal nourishment, smoking or due to other chronic diseases, immunosuppressing disease like HIV adds to the infection.



Lozano, R et al. 2013. Global and regional mortality from235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systemic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet; 380:2095-128. Retrieved on 19 Sep 2016.

Peto et al. (2014). The bacterial aetiology of adult community- acquired pneumonia in Asia: a systematic review. Transaction of the royal society of tropical medicine & hygiene. Vol 108, issue 6. 326-337. Doi:10.1093/trstmh/tru058.

Kamangar, N. (2015). Bacterial pneumonia. Medscape.Viewed on 19 September 2016 from, C, M, Bruyere, H, J. (2009). Bacterial pneumonia. Porth: Pathophysiology 8th Ed +Bruyere: 100 case studies in pathophysiology. USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Musher, D.M. and Thorner, A. R. (2014, Oct 23). Community acquired pneumonia. The New England Journal of Medicine. 371:1619. Doi: 10. 1056/NEJMra1312885. Retrieved on 19 Sep 2016.


Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2018). Pneumonia: Aetiology And Pathophysiology. Retrieved from

"Pneumonia: Aetiology And Pathophysiology." My Assignment Help, 2018,

My Assignment Help (2018) Pneumonia: Aetiology And Pathophysiology [Online]. Available from:
[Accessed 03 June 2020].

My Assignment Help. 'Pneumonia: Aetiology And Pathophysiology' (My Assignment Help, 2018) <> accessed 03 June 2020.

My Assignment Help. Pneumonia: Aetiology And Pathophysiology [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2018 [cited 03 June 2020]. Available from:

At, we are committed to deliver quality assignment assistance in the fastest way possible. To make our service delivery fast, we have hired subject matter experts to work on different subject specific assignments. We have hired experts who owe in-depth knowledge in their respective subjects. As per their expertise, they provide geography assignment help, Physics assignment help, Strategic assignment help, history assignment help, art architecture assignment help and assistance with other subjects as well.

Latest Biology Samples

BIO122 Environmental Biology

Download : 0 | Pages : 5
  • University: ECPI University
  • Country: United States

Answer: Introduction According to reports by different researche, climate change tends to affect regions through both direct and indirect impacts. However, Reports from previous studies shows that various regions will face challenges differently as per climate change is concerned according to their weather. Region background North America is ranked as the third-largest continent in the world with an approximate population of 515 million peo...

Read More arrow

LA106 Sex And Gender

Download : 1 | Pages : 3
  • Course Code: LA106
  • University: Monroe College
  • Country: United States

Answer: A research indicates that self-esteem shows differences in the way people behave. From the observation, it is evident that people do not tend to follow traditional expectations for nonverbal communication for their gender when presenting themselves to others. This is happening because of the following reasons; everyone in the society regardless of ones level of self-esteem, one will be able to associate himself with the traits that are g...

Read More arrow

SWK501 Human Lifespan And Social Ecology

Download : 0 | Pages : 11

Answer: Introduction Adolescence is the transitional stage of growth and development between childhood and adulthood (Curtis, 2015). According to the world health organization, the adolescent is any individual or person between ages ten to nineteen (World Health Organisation, 2019). In various societies, the adolescence is intently equated with the puberty and the cycle of bodily alterations culminating in broader terms that encompass mental,...

Read More arrow Tags: Singapore Management Singapore University 

BIO 1100 Non-Majors Biology

Download : 1 | Pages : 6

Answer: Some of the genetics terminology are: Gene : DNA segments carry all the genetic information. This information is called genes, Gene is a sequence of DNA bases. These bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine. It decides the order of amino acids (Lodish et al., 2013). Carcinogen: Any substance which has the potential of causing cancer Allele: Allele is a different form of gene. When the copies of gene is different, they are kno...

Read More arrow

7312MED Epidemiology: Pinciples And Practices

Download : 0 | Pages : 6
  • Course Code: 7312MED
  • University: Griffith University
  • Country: Australia

Answer: 1 (a): City A: Crude incidence rate per 100,000 men = (650/600,000) X 100,000 = 108.33 Incidence rate per 100,000 men for the age group of 0 – 44, = (50/500,000) X 100,000 = 10 Incidence rate per 100,000 men for the age group of 45 – 64, = (250/75,000) X 100,000 = 333.33 Incidence rate per 100,000 men for the age group of 65+, = (350/25,000) X 100,000 = 1400 City B: Crude incidence rate per 100,000 men = (3580/2,5...

Read More arrow Tags: Australia Calamvale Management Decision making and problemsolving University of New South Wales 

Save Time & improve Grade

Just share Requriment and get customize Solution.

We will use e-mail only for:

arrow Communication regarding your orders

arrow To send you invoices, and other billing info

arrow To provide you with information of offers and other benefits




Overall Rating



Our Amazing Features


On Time Delivery

Our writers make sure that all orders are submitted, prior to the deadline.


Plagiarism Free Work

Using reliable plagiarism detection software, only provide customized 100 percent original papers.


24 X 7 Live Help

Feel free to contact our assignment writing services any time via phone, email or live chat.


Services For All Subjects

Our writers can provide you professional writing assistance on any subject at any level.


Best Price Guarantee

Our best price guarantee ensures that the features we offer cannot be matched by any of the competitors.

Our Experts

Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

529 Order Completed

95% Response Time

Ivan Blank

PhD in Functional Human Biology

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

134 Order Completed

95% Response Time

Thomas Nelson

MS in Information Systems Technology with Specialization in Database Administration

New Jersey, United States

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

647 Order Completed

98% Response Time

Adlina Han

Masters in Marketing with Specialization in Branding

Singapore, Singapore

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

2115 Order Completed

97% Response Time

Kimberley Chen

MPA in Accounting

Singapore, Singapore

Hire Me

FREE Tools


Plagiarism Checker

Get all your documents checked for plagiarism or duplicacy with us.


Essay Typer

Get different kinds of essays typed in minutes with clicks.


GPA Calculator

Calculate your semester grades and cumulative GPa with our GPA Calculator.


Chemical Equation Balancer

Balance any chemical equation in minutes just by entering the formula.


Word Counter & Page Calculator

Calculate the number of words and number of pages of all your academic documents.

Refer Just 5 Friends to Earn More than $2000

Check your estimated earning as per your ability




Your Approx Earning

Live Review

Our Mission Client Satisfaction

Great work given the time that the assignment was required. Premium is the way to go.


User Id: 434326 - 02 Jun 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Not much of an issue because the tutor\'s expectation was not very high in the end.


User Id: 321826 - 02 Jun 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Markers noted some spelling errors and actually weak comparison in the report, it somehow scored a nice grade and I\'m fine with it.


User Id: 321826 - 02 Jun 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

I extremely thank you for completing my work in limited time frame. I thought I can\'t complete my work on time and I was depressed too until I get my final work. I can\'t express my happiness.


User Id: 389686 - 02 Jun 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating
callback request mobile
Have any Query?