$20 Bonus + 25% OFF
Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment at The Lowest Price Now!

Pneumothorax An Abnormal Collection Of Air In The Pleural Space

tag 0 Download7 Pages 1,745 Words tag Add in library Click this icon and make it bookmark in your library to refer it later. GOT IT


Discuss About Pneumothorax An Abnormal Collection Of Air In The Pleural Space?




Pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air in the pleural space, causing an uncoupling of the lung from the chest wall. It leads to collapsing of lungs. As the level of air in the space between lung and chest wall increases, the pressure against lung also increases, which causes the lungs to collapse. There are several reasons, which may leads to pneumothorax. Thus, it is important to identify the cause of the disease along with the pathophysiology (Volpicelli 2011). In this essay, the focus is Leigh Richards, whose daughter needs to know the pathophysiology of pneumothorax and the rationale for the available pharmacology of the disorder. Thus, the essay would include the description of pathophysiology of the case patient, i.e. the role of UWSD insertion, signs and symptoms of pneumothorax and its effects on cardiac and respiratory system.


Pathopysiology of pneumothorax

Pneumothorax is the condition with the presence of gas within the pleural space. Normally, lungs are fully inflamed within the cavity as the alveolar pressure is greater than the intrapleural pressure, while the intrapleural pressure is less than the atmospheric pressure. Instead of low pressure in the pleural space air is unable to enter it due to the absence of air-containing passage and the pressure of gases in the bloodstream is low to forcefully enter into the pleural space. Therefore, if air is allowed to enter, via damaged chest wall or impaired lung or due to gas producing microbes present in the pleural space, pneumothorax can only develop (Grundy et al. 2012). Upon establishment of a link between pleural space and alveolus or within atmosphere and pleural space, gases follow the pressure gradient and flows into the pleural space, until the pressure gradient disappears or the abnormal communication is have been sealed. When the condition develops, as the thoracic cavity is usually below the resting volume and lung is above its resting volume, lung becomes smaller and thoracic cavity enlarges. In minority of cases the air volume within the chest increases, when a one-way valve is developed by an area of damaged tissue, which develops tension pneumothorax.

This condition is referred to a medical emergency and occurs when a he intrapleural pressure goes beyond the atmospheric pressure, especially at the time of expiration, as a result of a ball valve mechanism, which influences the inspiration accumulation of pleural gases. The development of pressure within pleural space results in hypoxaemia and leads to respiratory collapse due to compression of lung. The body compensate for the condition by increasing respiratory rate and tidal volume, thereby worsening the problem. This medical condition is caused due to a steadily worsening oxygen shortage along with low blood pressure (Subotic and Van Schil 2011). The condition may also lead to death by hypoxia and respiratory arrest, if not managed properly. However, in very rare cases, both of the lungs get affected by a pneumothorax, the condition known as atelectasis or collapsed lung.

The primary pneumothorax is the condition occurring without apparent cause, in the absence of significant lung disease, whereas the secondary pneumothorax is referred to the condition when the other lung diseases are already present. The damage to chest wall can arise as a result of injury to chest wall like stab or bullet wounds. In secondary spontaneous pneumothoraces, a diverse range of disease process can lead to vulnerabilities in the lung tissue by rupturing of bullae in cases of severe emphysema (Zarogoulidis et al. 2014). The areas, where the necrosis occurs may facilitate pneumothorax. From many years it has been thought that small air filed lesions under pleural surface, which are known as blebs, are contributing in increasing the risk of pneumothorax.


Pharmacology of pneumothorax

Immediate needle decompression can be done for tension pneumothoraces. Continuous monitoring with regular X-ray for primary spontaneous pneumothoraces can also be a significant treatment. However, underwater seal drainage has a high potential to resolve the progression towards secondary spontaneous pneumothorax development (Nelson et al. 2013).

UWSD and effects

An underwater seal and chest tube, which is also known as chest drain, thoracic catheter, intercostals drain or thoracostomy, is a  hollow, fexible and long tube, which is inserted through the chest wall within ribs and into the pleural space or mediastinum. This process is used for removing air, in case of pneumothorax from the intrathoracic space. It is a canister device, used for collecting chest drainage (Roberts et al. 2015). This drainage canister uses three chambers, based on three bottle system. The first chamber collects the fluid from chest. The second chamber plays the role of a “water seal”, acting as one way valve that allows the gases to excape, instead of allowing gases to re-enter chest. The third chamber is the suction control chamber. The water height in the chamber controls the negative pressure on the system.

Chest drains usually remains in as long as the air remains in the pleural space. Leigh Richard will undergo a regular chest X-ray to monitor the progress in recovery of the heath issue. There may be complications, associated with chest drainage; minor problems include bruising, anxiety, breathing shortness and cough. However, major complications like bleeding, infection, re-expansion pulmonary edema, injury to liver, spleen or diaphragm may happen, though the frequency is low. Inappropriatee management can also cause thoracic aorta and heart injury. Chest tube clogging is the most common complication, caused by thrombus formation within the chest tube (Brown et al. 2014). The process can be used for other conditions like pleural effusion, referred to the condition related to accumulation of fluid in pleural space. The process is crucial for cease the development of tension pneumothorax, as tension pneumothorax is the condition, which is the result of progressive increase in intrapleural pressure to such levels that become positive all through the respiratory cycle and collapses the lung, shifts the mediastinum as well as impairs venous return to the heart. Therefore, untreated primary pneumothorax can lead to tension pneumothorax (Puri and Dingemann 2011). This condition, if treated with UWSD, can restore the previous normal lung structure and reduce the chance of systematic hypotension, respiratory and cardiac arrest.


Effect on respiratory and cardiac system

In case of tension pneumothorax, as the pressure of gas increases within the pleural space, the ipsilateral lung collapses, leading to hypoxia. Untreated condition leads to the shift of mediastinum towards the contralateral side and impinges on and compresses both the contralateral lung and impairs the venous return towards the right atrium. The effect is hypoxia, indicating that there is shortage of airflow through airtubes, leading to deceased venous return due to compression of the relatively thin walls of the atria, impairing the cardiac function (Subotic and Van Schil 2011). The condition is followed by kinking of the inferior vena cava, which has been demonstrated as the initial step in blood flow restriction towards heart. This kinds of situation has been identified in many in trauma patients, who are hypovolemic with reduced venous blood returning to the heart. Therefore, the above consequences of tension pneumothorax demonstrated that the condition, if left untreated, can rapidly progress towards respiratory insufficiency, cardiac arrest or cardiovascular collapse, which in turn leads to death. Therefore, the above discussion regarding the effect of pneumthorax on both respiratory and cardiovascular system would be helpful for Leigh Richard’s daughter to understand from the nursing perspectives.


The symptoms are dependent upon the size of pneumothorax. In the mild cases, the symptoms are not properly felt or understood. However, in severe cases rapid symptoms may generate, leading to shock. Symptoms of pneumothorax usually include sudden onset of one sided, sharp chest pain along with breathing shortness.  Shortness of breath or dyspnea may be mild or severe, severity of which depends upon how much the lung is collapsed. These sudden symptoms can be worsened with changes in altitudes like flying high in airplane or going underwater or underground (Volpicelli 2011). Breathing shortness or hypoxia is the manifestation of low airflow through the air tube, which is the result of respiratory arrest, whereas hypotension is the manifestation of cardiac insufficiency of proper blood flow through the blood vessels. The physical findings consist of absent tactile fremitus, hyperresonance to percussion along with decreased breath sounds on the affected side. Hypotension can also be a sign, if the pneumothorax is large and the affected side is enlarged, which causes the shift of trachea to the opposite side.



In conclusion, it can be said that pneumothorax is a significant respiratory disorder, which should be diagnosed as soon as the patient experiences visible signs and symptoms. It is because, the issue can rapidly progress towards the worsening of the condition, which may be non-curable and may led to fatal consequences. In this essay, Leigh Richard’s case study was focused, where his daughter, the second year nursing student attempts to understand the consequences of the condition and role of UWSD. The essay demonstrated the signs and symptoms, pathophysiology, pharmacology of UWSD as well the effects of the issue on both respiratory and cardiovascular system.


Reference List

Brown, S.G.A., Ball, E.L., Macdonald, S.P.J., Wright, C. and McD Taylor, D., 2014. Spontaneous pneumothorax; a multicentre retrospective analysis of emergency treatment, complications and outcomes. Internal medicine journal, 44(5), pp.450-457.

Grundy, S., Bentley, A. and Tschopp, J.M., 2012. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax: a diffuse disease of the pleura. Respiration, 83(3), pp.185-189.

Nelson, D., Porta, C., Satterly, S., Blair, K., Johnson, E., Inaba, K. and Martin, M., 2013. Physiology and cardiovascular effect of severe tension pneumothorax in a porcine model. journal of surgical research, 184(1), pp.450-457.

Puri, P. and Dingemann, J., 2011. Pulmonary air leaks. Newborn Surgery 3E, p.333.

Roberts, D.J., Leigh-Smith, S., Faris, P.D., Blackmore, C., Ball, C.G., Robertson, H.L., Dixon, E., James, M.T., Kirkpatrick, A.W., Kortbeek, J.B. and Stelfox, H.T., 2015. Clinical presentation of patients with tension pneumothorax: a systematic review. Annals of surgery, 261(6), pp.1068-1078.

Subotic, D. and Van Schil, P., 2011. Spontaneous pneumothorax: remaining controversies. Minerva chirurgica, 66(4), pp.347-360.

Volpicelli, G., 2011. Sonographic diagnosis of pneumothorax. Intensive care medicine, 37(2), pp.224-232.

Zarogoulidis, P., Kioumis, I., Pitsiou, G., Porpodis, K., Lampaki, S., Papaiwannou, A., Katsikogiannis, N., Zaric, B., Branislav, P., Secen, N. and Dryllis, G., 2014. Pneumothorax: from definition to diagnosis and treatment. Journal of thoracic disease, 6(4), pp.S372-S376.


Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2018). Pneumothorax An Abnormal Collection Of Air In The Pleural Space. Retrieved from

"Pneumothorax An Abnormal Collection Of Air In The Pleural Space." My Assignment Help, 2018,

My Assignment Help (2018) Pneumothorax An Abnormal Collection Of Air In The Pleural Space [Online]. Available from:
[Accessed 01 April 2020].

My Assignment Help. 'Pneumothorax An Abnormal Collection Of Air In The Pleural Space' (My Assignment Help, 2018) <> accessed 01 April 2020.

My Assignment Help. Pneumothorax An Abnormal Collection Of Air In The Pleural Space [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2018 [cited 01 April 2020]. Available from:

If you often wonder, Can anyone help me with my essay, then get started with - the best online essay help service around. Our proficient essay writers will assist you to write a winning essay. Be it argumentative essay, persuasive essay, descriptive essay or expository essay, we provide essay writing help for all. We provide top-notch essay assistance at the best market price. We provide essay help for more than 100 topics. For further information, get connected with our support team.

Latest Nursing Samples

NURS1103 Clinical Nursing Practice

Download : 0 | Pages : 6
  • Course Code: NURS1103
  • University: The University Of Queensland
  • Country: Australia

Answer: Introduction Nurses are considered as one of the most important contributors in all the stages related to dementia. Nurses are plays very significant role in bringing improvement and better results in order to bring quality in the life of those people who are suffering from dementia. Dementia is considered as one of the big challenges in the medical segment (Sauer, Fopma-Loy, Kinney & Lokon, 2016). Around 25% population of Austral...

Read More arrow Tags: Australia Melbourne Management information management and control University of Melbourne Humanities 

CNA344 Becoming A Registered Nurse: Practice Consolidation

Download : 0 | Pages : 8

Answer: Introduction In critical care nursing, close attention must be paid to the patient’s present status Most errors in clinical reasoning are not due to inadequate or incompetent knowledge but to the weakness of human thinking when there are uncertainty, complexity and pressure of time. To minimize such perception error we need to understand its causes. Generally nurses use clinical decision making during patient care. These decisio...

Read More arrow

MNG03217 The Positive Leader And Guide

Download : 0 | Pages : 6

Answer: Introduction It can be observed that the leaders should be positive as it can help in maintaining the engagement and performance of the employees in the workplace. Positivity can help the leader to maintain control over the activities. It is the responsibility of the leader to evaluate the overall activities in the work place and it has been examined that it is important for them to focus on attaining the positive results. Leaders ar...

Read More arrow

CNA344 Practice Portfolio Of Evidence

Download : 0 | Pages : 10

Answer: Consider the patient situation/context Provide an overview of the encounter.  What happened, how it occurred, etc what was it that alerted you to that fact that you needed to take action in the encounter. A patient was admitted to the emergency department with severe chest pain, sweating, body discomfort, palpitations, breathlessness and light-headedness. He was immediately put on supplemental oxygen therapy though nasal cannula...

Read More arrow

HSNS 365 Case Study Report Marking Criteria Method

Download : 1 | Pages : 9

Answer: Introduction:  The comprehensive patient assessment helps in the recognizing and identifying the care needs of the target patient groups, understanding the particular preferences of the patients and their family members, along with providing a benchmark for proper continual monitoring system for the progress that the patient is making in response to the care being provided (Estes, 2013). This essay will attempt to implore on comp...

Read More arrow

Save Time & improve Grades

Just share your requirements and get customized solutions on time.

We will use e-mail only for:

arrow Communication regarding your orders

arrow To send you invoices, and other billing info

arrow To provide you with information of offers and other benefits




Overall Rating



Our Amazing Features


On Time Delivery

Our writers make sure that all orders are submitted, prior to the deadline.


Plagiarism Free Work

Using reliable plagiarism detection software, only provide customized 100 percent original papers.


24 X 7 Live Help

Feel free to contact our assignment writing services any time via phone, email or live chat.


Services For All Subjects

Our writers can provide you professional writing assistance on any subject at any level.


Best Price Guarantee

Our best price guarantee ensures that the features we offer cannot be matched by any of the competitors.

Our Experts

Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

755 Order Completed

95% Response Time

Douglas Cowley

Masters in Finance with Specialization in Audit

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

230 Order Completed

97% Response Time

Liya Han

Master Of Science in Geotechnical Engineering (MSc Geotec)

Singapore, Singapore

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 4/5

2594 Order Completed

95% Response Time

Michael Johnson

Masters of MSc in Economics

Washington, United States

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

93 Order Completed

100% Response Time

Jackson Mitchell

MiM (Masters in Management) in Supply Chain Management

New Jersey, United States

Hire Me

FREE Tools


Plagiarism Checker

Get all your documents checked for plagiarism or duplicacy with us.


Essay Typer

Get different kinds of essays typed in minutes with clicks.


GPA Calculator

Calculate your semester grades and cumulative GPa with our GPA Calculator.


Chemical Equation Balancer

Balance any chemical equation in minutes just by entering the formula.


Word Counter & Page Calculator

Calculate the number of words and number of pages of all your academic documents.

Refer Just 5 Friends to Earn More than $2000

Check your estimated earning as per your ability




Your Approx Earning

Live Review

Our Mission Client Satisfaction

I got a 100 on my paper. Thank you for answer on such a short notice. It was a stiff price overall they responded and had me finish before my deadline!!!


User Id: 384118 - 01 Apr 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

My assignment you did was really excellent and I really like it. I will use this one again. thanks


User Id: 388948 - 01 Apr 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

this is the final assignment for this subject and did everything well and got a D grade for the subject.


User Id: 287765 - 01 Apr 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

this is the final group assignment and needed to upload on Turnitin. I could do my part really well and got a hd for this subject. great work guys.


User Id: 287765 - 01 Apr 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating
callback request mobile
Have any Query?