Discussion of major civil rights amendments in America
History of America is also a history of aggregation of diverse communities from all around the world. The civil rights movement in America is sewed around the women rights and the black rights. The basic difference between the civil rights and civil liberties is that the civil rights are based on unequal treatment in terms of language, race, gender, disability and others; whereas the civil liberties mean the constitution based rights like freedom of expression, freedom of speech and others (Pettigrew,1964).
The anti-racist movement in the 1950's and 60's became a prominent part of urban American culture. According to the law implemented by Plessy V. Ferguson in 1896, the public facilities of the Blacks and whites were segregated from each other (pbs.org, 2017). In 1954, Supreme Court of America uprooted the laws of segregation through the implemented decision. In a court case between Browns versus Board of Education, the Chief Justice Earl Warren stated that "no state shall make or enforce any law which shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of rights." This court case played a major role in transforming the entire scenario in the US government policies. Since then, the segregated schools of Whites were declared as illegal in several states of America. The court's conclusion was based on the study, which provided evidence about the low self-esteem of the blacks in the segregated schools. This was a historical judgment, which revamped the entire education system of America and was re-established on the terms of racial equality (Oleske, 2017).
Another such instance of a Supreme Court judgment of the 1967 case between Loving versus Virginia played a major role in the history of US. This state of Virginia imprisoned Loving (black women) and her husband (a white man) as they did not belong to the same race (Hoewe, 2016). The Supreme Court's decision was unanimously in favour of the couple. The Supreme Court declared that the state has no credibility to intervene in the personal choices of the citizens. Since then all the legal restrictions of the instances of inter- racial marriage has stopped in the U.S. The Supreme Court upheld the constitutional rights and negated the racial classification of marriage which was practiced in 16 states until then.
Discussion of two major media events in the history of America
The media is regarded as the fourth pillar of the modern democracy. In the present age of information and communication, it plays a major role in creating a public opinion. American history is full of such instances. One such event is the interview of a soldier Walter Cronkite (1968) after his return from the Vietnam War (Vasterling et al., 2016). In America the environment created by the government and the media was pro-war. After the shocking public interview of Cronkite and his confession that the war was not winnable this strengthened the anti-war movement in America. The liberal left public of America was never in favour of this war and after this event, the government was highly pressurised by the common public to end the war. American policy towards third world countries and its treatment towards them is hit by the war in Vietnam. The effect was so deep that it helped in creating new public opinions and the strengthened the liberal left in America (Butler et al., 2015).
The Iraq war in the 21st century has been portrayed in a specific way in the American media. After the events of 9/11, the policy of American government became very anti-middle east (Schwartz, 2016). The war in Iraq was displayed as a responsibility for the American government as a super power. The victory of US, unlike the Vietnam War, also led to an instant pro-war stance of an American public. George W. Bush was perhaps re-elected because of the pro-war wave in America. This also led to a rise in racist ideas among the white American public (Aspin & Dickinson, 2017).
Discussion about Republican and Democratic parties
The racial discrimination has been an issue of debate among the political circles of United States. The liberal left media believes that the Republican principles were basically based on their support of white supremacists and the Democrats are believed to be a champion of Blacks and women. This conflict between Republicans and Democrats could not restrict the constant betterment of human rights and equality among all races in America.
- The Republicans are believed to a counterpart of the British Conservative party. Republicans are the rightist parties, who mostly believe in Christian principles. Most of the members of the Republican Party are the older immigrants of America (Phillips, 2014). Most of the Republicans believe in death penalty or the Capital Punishment unlike most of the Democrats.
- The Republican Party is strong in the states like Texas, Virginia, Ohio and Arizona whereas the Democratic Party is strong in states like New York, Hawai and California. The Republican Party believed that the entire concept of the global warming is a democratic conspiracy and believes in more pro-war stance. The left-liberal media has always claimed the Republican Party to be racist and anti-feminist.
The Democratic Party
- On the other hand, the Democratic performance in the recent years in the case of the state elections has improved. The Democratic Party has been vocal on their support of the movements like ‘Black Lives Matter' and the inclusion of illegal immigrants. The support for the integration of the Blacks and other races in the American society is one of the pluralistic approaches of the Democratic Party.
- Most of the Democrats are also in favour of women rights and better health care systems. Bernie Sanders, one of the front runners in US primaries in the last elections has also used the propaganda of the rise in labour wages (Heaney, 2016). The democrats and the republicans have several other differences as well. The Democrats are also supporters of Women empowerment and universal health care system unlike the Republicans.
Aspin, L., & Dickinson, W. (2017). Defense for a New Era: Lessons of the Persian Gulf War. U of Nebraska Press.
Butler, D. M., Volden, C., Dynes, A. M., & Shor, B. (2015). Ideology, Learning, and Policy Diffusion: Experimental Evidence. American Journal of Political Science.
Heaney, M. T. (2016). Bernie Sanders and the Occupy Wall Street Wing of the Democratic Party. University of Michigan, 1-13.
Hoewe, J. (2016). Loving v. Virginia. The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism.
Oleske, J. (2017). The Evolution of Accommodation: Comparing the Unequal Treatment of Religious Objections to Interracial and Same-Sex Marriages. Papers.ssrn.com. Retrieved 16 May 2017, from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2400100
Pettigrew, T. F. (1964). A profile of the Negro American.
Phillips, K. P. (2014). The emerging Republican majority. Princeton University Press.
Schwartz, M. (2016). War without end: The Iraq war in context. Haymarket Books.
The Supreme Court . Expanding Civil Rights . Landmark Cases . Brown v. Board of Education (1954) | PBS. (2017). Pbs.org. Retrieved 16 May 2017, from https://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_brown.html
Vasterling, J. J., Aslan, M., Proctor, S. P., Ko, J., Marx, B. P., Jakupcak, M., ... & Concato, J. (2016). Longitudinal Examination of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder as a Long-Term Outcome of Iraq War Deployment. American Journal of Epidemiology.