What is governance ? To what extent does the concept enhance our understanding of the processes of government in modern Britain?
Governance refers to the process of governing that is undertaken by a government or network with the help of laws and norms. It indicates the process of interaction along with that of decision making among actors who are involved in a collective problem. It leads to the creation along with that of reinforcement in relation to the norms prevailing in society. It is indicative of the political process that exist in the formal institutions. There are a large number of entities that can govern. The one that is most formal is that of the government whose primary responsibility is to make binding decisions within a geo-political system by making laws. Governance refer to the ways rules and norms are structured and it is driven by different motivations (Patten 2016). The government in Great Britain is led by that of the prime minister who is responsible for selecting the remaining ministers. This essay elaborates on the political principles of Great Britain and applies idea to elucidate on the political condition of UK.
The British economy was in a good position in the era of 2015. In order to comply with the Fixed Term Parliaments Act, the general election was called in 7th May, 2015. The conservatives assumed credit for upswing and promised to keep the taxes low. They were keen about reducing the deficit along with that of promising an In/Out referendum that talked about the relationship of UK with that of the European Union (Robinson 2017). The Labour Party who were the rival wanted a higher minimum wage along with that of higher taxes on the part of the rich. In Scotland, the Scottish National Party (SNP) attacked the programme of austerity and opposed to that of nuclear weapons. They demanded the promise of more autonomy in relation to Scotland that was made during the time of the independence referendum.
The Pre-election polls had predicted a hung parliament but the result was surprising because a majority conservative government got elected. The Conservatives got 37% in relation to the popular vote and won a narrow majority winning 331 of the total 650 votes. Another main victor was that of the Scottish national Party that won 56 of the total of 59 seats in Scotland. Labour suffered a great defeat since the year of 1987 and took only 31% of the votes along with 232 seats. They also lost 40 of the total of 41 seats in the area of Scotland. The vote in relation to the Liberal Democrats fell by that of 2/3 and they lost out on 49 of the total of 57 seats. The coalition with that of the conservatives had led to alienation of a large part of their supporters (Pisani-Ferry et al., 2016). The new party, UK Independence Party rallied voters against that of Europe and against that of immigration. They did well by winning 13 % of vote count.
On the 23rd of June, 2016 the majority of the voters of UK wanted to withdraw from European Union and 52% of the voters wanted to move out of the European Union. London, Northern Ireland along with that of the Scotland were the main three regions that were in favour of the Remain vote (Adler-Nissen, Galpin and Rosamond 2017). Wales along with that of the northern region of England were strong advocators of the pro-leave policy (Dhingra et al., 2016). The British prime minister David Cameron had called for a referendum and campaigned strongly for that of the Remain vote. He had to face a lot of opposition from that of other parties on the right who perceived the British membership in the European Union as detrimental for the security of the country.
Brexit led to some immediate results. After the result of the referendum, David Cameron made a declaration that he would soon resign as the Prime Minister. According to him, a fresh leadership was the requirement at this stage to take the country out of this critical situation. The Scottish voters wanted to stay within the European Union and the first minister of Scotland Nicola Sturgeon made an announcement that the Scottish government would organize another referendum based on the question of the Scottish independence (O'Rourke 2016). The economic side of things revealed that value in relation to the British pound declined to a great extent after the result in relation to the election was made clear. Stock market in Britain along with that of New York fell down a day after that of the referendum. There was a decrease in the price of fuel.
There was a conservative party leadership election that occurred after the announcement of the resignation of Cameron. All the candidates except that of Theresa May had eliminated or withdrawn from that of the race by the 11th of July, 2016. Theresa May, as a result of this, became the leader of the Conservative Party and became the prime minister on the 13th of July. Theresa May has come under pressure from that of the supporters of Brexit so that she spells out regarding the fact what UK will gain from paying a higher divorce bill of around 40 bn pound. The prime minister will make an effort to reach consensus over that of a proposed offer as the UK wants to break the deadlock in relation to the negotiation of Brexit. Some of the ministers who wants to leave includes that of Boris Johnson along with Michael Gove and they are applying pressure in order to make sure that the UK has a clear idea in relation to what it wants from future trading relationship. They want to press the prime minister so that cabinet discussions can begin in relation to the future trading relationship of UK. Philip Hammond has confirmed that the UK would make an offer that is improved to that of the EU within that of the three and a half weeks (Murray 2017).
The Chancellor has stated that proposals would be made to that of the European Union during the council. He made a promise that Britain would honour the debts and negotiate hard in aspects related to that of financial settlement. The senior Brexiters are concerned about idea of signing up a large sum as a part of withdrawal agreement that ended up with that of an unsatisfactory deal in relation to the future relationship. Johnson is not perceived to be in opposition to that of the divorce bill that is higher than that of the 20 bn pound that was offered by May. It would require assurances that the UK is heading for the right kind of relationship with that of the EU when it leaves. In the present moment, a cabinet meeting is being held that would seek a two-year transitional period after Britain leaves that of the EU in March, 2019 Cumming, D.J. and (Cumming and Zahra 2016). Nothing has been ascertained regarding what the future relationship would look like.
The prime minister has said that a transitional phase was necessary that would see Britain stay in the European Union’s core institutions until the period ends. During the transitional phase, Britain’s relationship with that of the European Union would continue and according to Theresa May this would help in providing reassurance to the British business. This would significantly contribute in providing a smooth exit from that of the EU. This is mainly aimed at preventing the British economy from facing a situation of crisis and would provide stability for the businesses of Britain (Becker, Fetzer and Novy 2017). It would very conveniently act as a bridge between that of Britain leaving the EU and the particular moment when a long-term relationship is forged between that of the Britain and 28 nation bloc. In their words, a transitional phase was necessary when one moves from set of regulations to that of the other. The transitional deal suggests that the political consensus is in favour of an implementation phase that would help in ensuring the economical stability of the United Kingdom (Jackson, Feldschreiber and Breckenridge 2017).
The transitional deal is referred to as a “standstill” that would ensure that Britain stays in the single market till the period expires. The single market is indicative of an agreement between different countries that allows the countries to carry out trade with one another without any kind of restriction. It helps in the easy movement of the goods and services within a market. By the unification of the product rules, it will be assured that no issues crop up in relation to the transportation of goods (Inglehart and Norris 2016). National rules restrict the free market and single market can help in ensuring that trade is carried out uninterrupted between that of different countries. The free movement in relation to the people would continue till the Brexit day.
In the words of May, free movement is extremely essential and it is indicative of one freedom that members of the single market should adhere by. Britain should pay in the European Union for many years after that of Brexit. Some of the hole that was caused to the EU budget by that of the Brexit would be fulfilled in due course of time. This offer would help in restarting the negotiations that has stopped on account of the divorce bill of UK (Luard 2016).
On the event of Britain continuing with the access to that of the EU highlights the fact that it will have to abide by the jurisdiction of that of the European Court of Justice. This will continue till the end of the transitional phase. The European Court of Justice are responsible for handling all the matters related to that of the single market. This will continue even after the occasion of Britain leaving that of the European Union in the year 2019. The Brexiters feels contempt for the European Court of Justice and they tend to forget about other international bodies like that of United Nations Security Council with whom they are also allied. United Kingdom is also member of World Trade Organisation and the U.K will have to rely on this international body in the event of failing to strike Brexit deal with that of the UK (Leach 2015). An underlying irony is on account of the fact that if the stance of UK on ECJ creates derailment of the Brexit talk then it would push the United Kingdom in the hand of another international body who will be endowed with the power to dictate the affairs in relation to the United Kingdom. A cause of annoyance for Brexiters is the European Court of Human Rights. It led to right-wing ire in the year 2012 when the deportation of Salafi cleric was blocked (Held 2013).
The Norway model refers to the membership of European Economic Area (EEA) that acts as an extension of the internal market of the European Union made up of 28 member states along with members of European Free Trade Association. Britain needs to join the European Free Trade Association if it has to join the European Economic Area after leaving the European Union. The EEA-EFTA membership would provide Britain with the benefit of access to that of the single market (Vickers 2017). It would also provide access to that of the EU programmes in return of that of financial contribution. It will carry along with it the additional burden of being a part of European Union member. The UK can benefit to a great extent by taking recourse to European integration and avoid that of political integration.
The exit of Great Britain from that of the European Union suggests that the course of history will never be linear. Many people have also come forward with the opinion that countries can lapse after having reached the height of civilization. Other people have expressed the notion that this move will prove to be the best thing in relation to Great Britain. The prevailing panic in relation to this issue will soon fade away. Britain have also differed from that of the rest of the world as in the case of constitutional democracy in 17th century when the prevailing norm was that of absolutism (Los et al., 2017). Around the same time, they opted for free economy when Louis XIV took control of French economy. They at that point of time established incentives like subsidies along with regulations. The dangers facing modern Britain would soon pass and lead to framing of new rules and policies that would benefit it on the whole and give rise to a new era.
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