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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Australian Young Adults

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Question:

Discuss about the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder among Australian Young Adults.
 
 

Answer:

Introduction:

Mental disorders have always been treated as a social taboo in our otherwise highly advanced society. Millions of people suffer from some form of mental disorder worldwide and the majority of them are discriminated at by the societal structure (Aupperle et al., 2012). Hence, it becomes essential for the health care system to take the responsibility of promoting the quality of life in the population that suffers from some or other form of mental disorders.

Studies suggest that stress related disorders are the most prevalent mental disorders in the current scenario targeting mostly the generation of young adults. The most frequent of theses stress related disorders are the post traumatic stress disorders. This report is designed to present a rationale on the complexities of the post traumatic stress disorders and why there is need for prioritizing this disorder in the young adult generation (Kumar & Preetha, 2012).

Post trauma stress disorder:

Post traumatic stress disorder or PTSD as commonly known can be described as the set of reactions generated in the individuals after they have experienced a traumatic event that had threatened or had the potential to threaten their safety and wellbeing (Gospodarevskaya, 2013). A traumatic vent can be anything; it can be an accident, a natural disaster or a physical, warfare and emotional or sexual assault and torture. The symptoms to this disorder may begin within a timeframe that is different for different people, however, it generally starts within month of going a traumatic event (Gospodarevskaya, 2013). The symptoms of the PTSD can be intrusive memorise where the victim might experience recurring and unwanted visions of the traumatic events giving the victim the impression of reliving it over and over again. Another of the symptoms can be the avoidance that the victim will show to any activity that may remind him or her about the unfortunate event. PTSD can effectively impart pessimism and alter the emotional reaction of the victim. All these symptoms intensify over time and lead the victim towards social seclusion and chronic depression (Kandalaft et al., 2013).

 

Consequences:

Survey studies suggest that 5 to 10 percent of all Australian population suffer from stress disorder at some point of their lives, and the maximum are the age group of 18 to 30 years. Studies suggest that the majority of youngsters that suffer from the post traumatic stress disorder, have experienced some drastic event in their childhood or teenage (Kearns et al., 2012). In most of the cases it is either a torturous sexual assault or a bloodlust crime they witnessed. These events lead to depression and an extreme case of social seclusion and self harming tendencies in the later years. The rate of the victims to PTSD is increasing alarmingly everyday and has become a rising concern for the health care system. The society is losing a vast majority of their young population due to increasing suicide rates and these mental disorders can be a prime cause to it (Kearns et al., 2012).

Health care system has long overlooked the mental stress related disorders and time has come for them to take the issue seriously to stop innocent lives getting lost due to the lack of proper help. Studies suggest that early intervention and treatment coupled with periodic counselling can help the victim tremendously if given to the needy at the right time. Therefore, it is clear that the need to prioritize the treatment options and benefits for the PTSD victims along with proper health promotion programs can diminish the issues in the bud and can help the victims regains the control to their life (Wilson, Smith & Johnson, 2013).

Relevance to the current priorities:

We are no stranger to the fact that health care system has advanced and diversified significantly over the years and it no longer is what it used to be years ago. Health care is now focussed, patient-centred and patient-friendly to a large extent, oriented towards the demand of the current trends and issues commendably (Kumar &Preetha, 2012). With the increasing number of super speciality facilities focussed on catering to a particular heath abnormality providing the best care possible with the convenience of the patients at the centre of it.

A number of health care priorities have been identified in the national health priority areas in Australian health care. These priorities include cancer care, cardiovascular care, injury care, mental health, diabetes, asthma, obesity, musculoskeletal conditions and dementia. Each sector receives specialised care and campaigning with extra emphasis on prevention rather than stressing on the aftermath (Kearns et al., 2012).

In this context post traumatic stress related disorder should also avail priority in the health care, as it has become one of the emerging health care concerns among the Australian young adults. It should include subjective approach focussed on the patient satisfaction and wellbeing to significantly eradicate the increasing rates of PTSD victims (Kumar & Preetha, 2012).

 

Debates and issues:

There is substantial consensus regarding the existing care and treatment options and efficacy of them considering the present scenario. The most important element to these contrasting opinions can be due to the difference in reaction to a traumatic event in different people. It has to be considered that post trauma stress is one of the most abundant diagnoses in the field of psychiatry. It is inevitable that there will be argument over what treatment plan should gain priority when discussing PTSD disorder when different patients respond to different types of treatment (Kumar & Preetha, 2012).

Moreover, the outlook of the society toward anything abnormal is seclusion and discrimination, which worsens the situation for a PTSD victim. According to the Erikson’s theory along the journey of an individual’s life there are a number of conflicts that they need to overcome, such as shame and doubt and guilt and inferiority that plagues the mind until the individual loses sense of self worth (Wilson, Smith & Johnson, 2013).

Determinants and risk factors:

The success of a broad scale program to target a key health care concern depends on different factors, called determinants. These determinants can be the response of the patients to the treatment, the constraints that are present to interfere with the successful implementation of the programs and the risk factors associated with the issue (Lee, Fang & Luo, 2013). Firstly the victims to PTSD take years to seek the help of the treatment options if they even take it, which can seriously alter the effectiveness of the treatment if it is delayed to a large extent.

 The sufferers of mental disorders face a lot of societal shaming, and that can be a contributing factor to their aversion to seeking help. Furthermore, most of the patients do not get past their deep rooted apprehension and cannot communicate freely with their counsellor, which lessens the efficacy and response of the patients to the treatment. Lastly there are a number of risk factors associated with the issue (Lee, Fang & Luo, 2013). The risk factors associated with disease are the likelihood of the long term sufferers progressing depression and anxiety, substance abuse, feeding disorders and most importantly suicidal tendencies.

 

Target group:

It has been discussed above that the young adult generation suffer more from post trauma stress than the rest of the age groups. It is said that this particular age range witnesses a lot of changes and transitions, this is the age range where an individual start their career and takes up a number of responsibilities and try to explore, and there can be unwanted traumatic experiences (Bisson et al., 2013). For example, almost 59% of the young generation is more prone to recklessness and hence they experience much more trauma than the rest. It is only likely that they receive the spotlight in the PTSD treatment program. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that the patients who gather enough courage to seek help for a mental disorder that has stemmed from a traumatic experience, and often they are too delayed. Focussing the treatment program on the young generation will ensure that they get the help in the earlier stages which can gain much better results from the treatment (Searcy, 2012).

 

Health promotion strategies:

The treatment plan available for the PTSD sufferers in Australia are provided by the ADF and other health care facilities, and in the private hospitals under the discretion of the Department of Veterans’ Affairs including a combination of medication and counselling therapies, however, there is need for more improved and focussed strategies, such as,
  • There is need for building healthy public policies, utilizing psychological debriefing, pharmacological treatment, and psychosocial interventions (Weathers et al., 2013).
  • The nest strategy should be creation of supportive environments for the sufferers
  • Another key area in the health promotion should be involving community action into creating supportive environment for the sufferers so that they can freely communicate about their issues without fear of being ashamed (Roden & Jarvis, 2012).
  • Large scale psychological checkups should also be conducted in case of a traumatic catastrophe that involves a large group of people so that they can develop skills beforehand to combat any stress disorders (Wilson, Friedman & Lindy, 2012).
  • Lastly there is need for reorganizing health care towards preventative measures, incorporating workshops and group sessions involving young adults in office premises, university campuses so that help gets to them before they have to seek help.

Conclusion:

There are a lot of facts and factors that influence the measures and their outcomes in case of mental disorders in the society. The treatment procedures have undoubted advanced to help the victims overcome the restriction that the mental disorders can pose. Health care priorities are a step in this direction to ensure that there is enough emphasis on areas that have been vastly previously ignored. Nonetheless, the emphasis should include the realistic issues that are more likely to be found in the general mass like PTSD. Promoting health care prioritization of such societal taboos will not only ensures that the health care is much more approachable and relatable to the victims but will also be the drive that will change the society’s vision towards mental sicknesses.

 

References:

Aupperle, R. L., Melrose, A. J., Stein, M. B., & Paulus, M. P. (2012). Executive function and PTSD: disengaging from trauma. Neuropharmacology, 62(2), 686-694.

Bisson, J. I., Roberts, N. P., Andrew, M., Cooper, R., & Lewis, C. (2013). Psychological therapies for chronic post?traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults. The Cochrane Library.

Gospodarevskaya, E. (2013). Post-traumatic stress disorder and quality of life in sexually abused Australian children. Journal of child sexual abuse, 22(3), 277-296.

Kandalaft, M. R., Didehbani, N., Krawczyk, D. C., Allen, T. T., & Chapman, S. B. (2013). Virtual reality social cognition training for young adults with high-functioning autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 43(1), 34-44.

Kearns, M. C., Ressler, K. J., Zatzick, D., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2012). Early interventions for PTSD: a review. Depression and anxiety, 29(10), 833-842.

Kumar, S., & Preetha, G. S. (2012). Health promotion: An effective tool for global health. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 37(1), 5.

Lee, R. D., Fang, X., & Luo, F. (2013). The impact of parental incarceration on the physical and mental health of young adults. Pediatrics, 131(4), e1188-e1195.

Roden, J., & Jarvis, L. (2012). Evaluation of the health promotion activities of paediatric nurses: Is the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion a useful framework?. Contemporary nurse, 41(2), 271-284.

Searcy, C. P. (2012). Pharmacological prevention of combat-related PTSD: a literature review. Military medicine, 177(6), 649.

Weathers, F. W., Litz, B. T., Keane, T. M., Palmieri, P. A., Marx, B. P., & Schnurr, P. P. (2013). The PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Scale available from the National Center for PTSD.

Wilson, J. P., Friedman, M. J., & Lindy, J. D. (Eds.). (2012). Treating psychological trauma and PTSD. Guilford Press.

Wilson, J. P., SMITH, W., & Johnson, S. K. (2013). A Comparative Analysis of PTSD Among Various. Trauma and its wake, 1, 142.

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