Discuss about Power management and organization science.
Change management is one of the most important managerial forms in the modern world. Every organisation undergoes changes in order meet the present requirements in the market. However, on certain occasions, it is seen that employees due to various reasons resist changes in an organisation (Fleming & Spicer, 2014). The essay highlights these reasons and provides a comprehensive detail about the problems faced by managers due to the resistance. The relationship between power and resistance is also stated and the ethical considerations that are required for power and resistance to exist are highlighted. Furthermore, assessment is made that highlights the implications of manager as well as resistance positions.
Identifying and examining reasons for employees resisting change
Most employees tend to resist changes because they feel that changes may have an adverse effect on their work. Hence, it is necessary for every manager to identify the reasons for resisting change. One of the most common reasons for resisting change is the loss of jobs (Bolman & Deal, 2017). Changes in an organisation normally include the method and process used for working. For example, in the modern era, organisations tend to rely more on technologies that can help in reducing the efforts of labour. Hence, employees fear a loss of a job as machines can help in finishing a job quickly and efficiently (Noer, 2017). This causes resistance among employees, as they do not want to give up the role that they play.
Another reason for the resistance of change includes the loss of control and competency. This mainly occurs, as most employees are adapted to working using one method. Hence, change in method or process can lead employees to change their style of working. This often leads to loss of control, as the new method needs adjustment and training. Consequently, such loss of control leads to falling in the competency of the employees. This, in turn, gives rise to loss of productivity in an organisation (Davies, 2017). Hence, this can be considered as another important factor that leads employees to resist changes in an organisation. Working in the comfort zone is always beneficial for the employees seeking longevity in their career.
Another most important reason for the resistance to change is the fear of facing the unknown. Changes normally bring about a great deal of unpredictability in an organisation. Employees feel that the past manner of work was more secure than the present. The fear of facing the unpredictability often leads employees to leave the organisation and seek for work. Hence, it is important for managers to ensure that changes in an organisation are made subtly. The lesser the knowledge of the employees about the impact of changes the better it is for organisations (Pugh, 2016). In this regard, the reason for the managers to consider resistance to change as a problem can be undertaken.
Managers often believe that changes need to be made keeping in mind the success and growth of an organisation. In order to make changes, managers often invest sufficient finance so that the growth rate of the organisations can be maintained (Craig, Nevin, & Odum, 2014). Resistance leads loss of finance as some employees tend to leave while others try to prevent the changes from being a success. Hence, managers consider the resistance to be a problem in every fold of an organisation. Keeping this in mind the power of the employees and resistance offered by them can be examined.
Examining the relationship between power and resistance
Power is considered as an ability of an individual or a group to influence people to undertake challenges (Anderson & Brion, 2014). Such ability can be attributed to leadership, as the leaders also need to influence the employees in taking up challenging tasks and roles. Hence, it can be said that providing an individual with power require certain characteristics. These include the ability to communicate, interact and influence people. Power can be broad of three types such as legitimate power, coercive power and group power. The exercising of power includes treating people differently depending on the situation at hand (Kuipers, et al., 2014). For example, it has been seen that legitimate power allows people to obey the orders of the superiors. Such behaviours stem from the social norms practised by the people.
Resistance, on the other hand, refers to a structural and systematic human barrier that is set up to prevent changes from both internal as well as external sources. Many people wanting to change things in the workplace can consider this as a negative influence (Hon, Bloom, & Crant, 2014). Certain models such as the psychological model are used to understand the emotions that occur in a human being while resisting changes. The reaction of the people towards change leads to the rise of the resistance. Most of the times this occurs due to various fear elements. However, in the case of changes forced upon externally, the employees involved in the resistance display their loyalty to their company.
It can be said that the relationship between power and resistance can be attributed to the fact that both require leadership qualities of individuals. In order to form a resistance, it is necessary for one person to lead a group. This symbolises the ability to influence people on the possible negative effects of change (Cameron & Green, 2015). However, unlike legitimate power, the leader does not have to be a senior member of an organisation. It has been seen that experience and proper insights of a particular situation can help an individual to become a leader. However, certain ethical issues need to be considered in influencing power and resistance.
Identifying the key ethical issues associated with power and resistance
Change is necessary in order to ensure that the resource allocation, methods and techniques of work improve. With the resistance of employees being an inevitable result, it is needed for a change agent to challenge the status quo (Doppelt, 2017). However, like any other managerial activity, ethical issues need to be considered by the people with power and the resistant members. These ethical issues can help an organisation to deal with the changes and its resistance subtly and ensure that knowledge is acquired with the change. One such ethical issue that can be identified deals with the involvement of external change agents.
Manipulation of data is one such ethical conduct that needs to be taken care of by managers of an organisation. Often it is seen that the hiring of external change agent warrants changes in an organisation by examining the policies put forward by the executive managers. If the managers find discrepancies in the report presented to the external change agents, manipulation may take place (Hayes, 2014). This can cause cessation of changes in an organisation. On the other hand, it may lead to initiate changes in an organisation as well. Hence, manipulation of important data and information is an important ethical consideration for the managers. The engagement of employees can help in deciding about the changes to be implemented.
Managers need to ensure that a proper ethical framework is used for identifying the ethics involved. This involves the consequential framework, duty framework and virtue framework. Every framework has their limits and to use the framework effectively it is necessary that a systematic approach be developed. This systematic approach takes into consideration the three levels involved in the framework. The basic stage for the application of this approach is recognising the ethical issue (Klonek, Lehmann-Willenbrock, & Kauffeld, 2014). In the case mentioned above, the ethical issue that can be considered includes the manipulation of data. Hence, it is necessary to identify the concerned parties and gather all information relating to the rise of the issue.
Hence, in order to avoid the violation of the ethical codes, managers need to plot an alternative course of action. In this case, the alternative course of action can be to provide true data so that the changes can take place. It needs to be the duty of the managers to ensure that power is provided to the right individual capable of influencing change in the organisation. This can be considered as the next stage in the framework as decisions are made to consider the plan (Hornstein, 2015). Implementation and reflection of the outcomes are done in order to find out other courses of action. Such actions can help in the future activities of the organisation and allow the members to remain ethical while imposing power and forming a resistance.
Assessing the implications of the managerial and resistant positions for effective change management
To ensure that effective change is maintained it is necessary for an organisation to set up positions at the managerial as well as resistant positions. These positions are important as they can direct the management about the implementation of the change process in the organisations. It is the duty of the managers to ensure that every change that is foreseen is implemented so that the employees can be more efficient (Jones & Ven, 2014). However, the managers also need to be sure that the changes are implemented slowly. The position that the managers need to take up is that of the power. This is because exercising the power over the employees can help the managers enforce the changes and save the organisations. The managers can overlook ethical manner of enforcing the changes.
The position of the resistant, on the other hand, needs to be more analytical than revolt. This is because the individuals involved in the resistance need to understand the reason behind the implementation of the changes. This can help the resistant members to form a plan to prevent the implementation of the changes (Munduate & Medina, 2017). The resistant also needs to be in a position from where they can negotiate. The negotiation needs to take place keeping in mind the requirements of the employees as well as the managers. Hence, it can be said that the position of the managers and the resistance are important in the change management process. The ethical framework can consist of the interest of both the parties and mutual consent can be formed in accordance with the interests.
Thus, it can be concluded that managers often demonise the resistance as it leads to huge loss. The planning of change requires planning which in turn requires excessive spending of finance. Hence, any resistance can result in the failure of the change and in turn create a huge financial loss for the company. Apart from this, employees involved in the resistance may leave the organisation due to the implementation of the changes. The ethical implication denotes that the changes need to be perceived before setting up any resistance movement. Other forms by which resistance can be identified involve low productivity and less compatibility among the employees.
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