The first one has been defining goals. An outline should be drafted with particular objectives that are expected from those projects. Here, the project managers must be mapping out various teams that must be involved while the project execution goes on. Here, the defining of project goals has been a vital step as it has helping to coordinate various activities. Then the projects must be planned. The commercial project managers have been liable to develop plans for the projects (Handschu et al., 2014). This has been involving various brainstorming sessions having their heads to receive a clear image of what can be achieved by the project. In order to communicate with plans more efficiently, the project managers must be adopting various visual charts and different network diagrams that have been defining various elements needed for the project. Here, every element is assigned with a timeline. Here, the network diagram has been also showing various tasks that are interconnected and has been dependent on others.
The collaborative design of complex mechanical product has been involving conflicts of multidisciplinary objectives. In this way one of the main problems has been coordination and resolution of conflicts present among various disciplines. As those characteristics like professional dependence, compromising, cooperative competitions and overall utility has been present in MSD or multidisciplinary collaborative design, the smartest method has been to gradually eradicate various conflicts within numerous disciplines and reach the agreements (Heinrich et al., 2015). Through analyzing those properties under MCD, and considering benefit equilibriums within various disciplines, the negotiation strategy is presented. This has been able to satisfy the degree of system of overall objective within the premise to ensure the larger satisfaction of degree of various systems within the premise. This is to ensure larger satisfaction of degree level of every local objective of the disciplines.
The study has been helpful to understand various complex and diverse government and non-government projects.
Theory of Negotiation and Negotiation in Practice.
With the development of globalized world, the policy making has been a matter of regional and national international importance. Here, for example, there have been arguments that the formation of policies related to global trade agreements has been considering wider issues of natural resource management, local subsistence economies and public welfares for jeopardizing various developments and reducing of poverty prospects. Here, the negotiations have been vital element of policy-making methods nationally from setting various agendas and finding various problems to be addressed by the policy makers. This has also included exploration of options, seeking solutions and then securing those supports from related parties. This is to assure that the policies are planned has been sustainable (Levin, 2014). Here, the negotiations have been the way to communicate and make stakeholder managements. Further, they have been playing a crucial role to retrieve better grasp of different complicated issues, human dynamic and factors beyond vital policy issues. Here, the rise of linkages, various interdependencies and fast pace of changes in various spheres has been impacting the vital issues. This has been including governance, trades, economics, local and international relations. Further, they have developed high need for skilled negotiators among various makers of policies and different experts.
Here negotiating has indicated the seeking to reach any agreement through various communications for achieving intended goals. Thus the actions have needed two parties and people who have desired the similar goal as they have been placing distinct values over that. The theory of negotiation has been important for various paradigms at international relations. Here, viewing negotiations within international relations has been ranging from the role in state-centric or realistic system (Olafsdottir, 2016). This has been to various contributions towards liberal interdependences. The negotiations are been conducted through national governments and national interest demand enforcements.
The study has been helpful to understand various methods of project negotiations and stakeholder engagements along with conflict managements.
The Role of the Project Manager in Commercial Negotiation
The various roles are identified below. The first role is to determine the opportunities. As commercial managers has been determining various opportunities of investments working at real estate they have been analyzing middle-class neighborhood for determining whether they has been investing rental houses. As senior managers has been approving the idea, the project managers has been leading to the plans, that involves schedule establishments and seeking potential investors and set various objectives. As the project continues, the effective commercial project managers has been mitigating and identifying various risks. They might design strategies for developing present management practices (Kerzner, 2013).
Then they must be negotiating those contracts. As he employer secures government contracts for constructing roads, for example, one can negotiate with state officials for assuring financial terms for meeting interest of the companies. Then there should be managing of costs due to improper managements of business projects. This has been leading to cost and time extensions. Prior the beginning of the project, the project managers must be collaborating with team for compiling estimated for accounting every labor and various material costs. They must keep proper records and upgrade various forecasts on regular basis in order to accommodate those changes (Chartier et al., 2014).
Next the compliances must be maintained to various related state and federal laws and various institutional policies towards completing the project successfully. In order to develop the compliances, an effective commercial project manage has been controlling various changes in various laws and inspecting the progress of work in daily basis for identifying those violations. The relationship based procurements has been leading to mutual benefits to construct various business-to-business dealings and supply various helps over conventionally fragmented supply chains. They have the ability to develop construction procurements chains of values.
The study has been helpful to understand project negotiations, stakeholder engagements and conflict managements.
Managing Stakeholders' Commercial Interests vs. Stakeholders' Political Interests
In case of commercial interests of stakeholders, the fist consideration is the economics. The employment training program has been developing the economic prospects for various low-income people. Next there has been the social change. This is a vital effort to develop racial harmony that can change social scenario for various members of racial and ethnic majority and minority. The various involving workers has been decision making that enhances the work life and making people more satisfied with the jobs (Wagner et al., 2014). The next consideration is the time including relief programs, flexible work hours and parental leave and various efforts. They have been providing people with time in leisure and taking care of business of life relieving stress and rising productivity. The next one is the environment where protection is given to open space, conservation of resources and attending climate changes and various environmental efforts that can be incorporated to everyday lives. This has also been seen as damaging to business various private ownerships.
As far as political interests of the stakeholders are considered there have various features to be considered. First of all, the stakeholders must be gaining various buy-in and supporting efforts from every stakeholder. This has been helpful to make them an integral portion of the evaluation, implementation, planning and developments. Here, every stakeholder must be included in developing efforts that might seriously affect them (Schwalbe, 2015). Further, the political interest has been saving from getting blindsides through concerns that are unknown. These concerns are aired and solved prior they turn into stumbling blocks. Though they cannot be resolved, they have not been coming as just surprises derailing efforts that the stakeholders though to been going well. Lastly, it has been strengthening the position as there is any opposition. Through placing all stakeholders over the board, it has been making high differences as far as moral and political clout is considered.
The study is helpful to make a comparative understanding of various political and commercial interests of stakeholders.
Summary: Communicating in Commercial Negotiation vs. Project Communication.
The effective communication has been vital in terms of salary negotiations. The salary must be expected clearly in front of various recruiters. Any effective communication has been of high importance to make business deals also. Here, the terms and conditions are to be mentioned as far better transparency is considered. The project managers must not hide anything from the third parties. It has been better to rely on various written communication modes such as letters, documents, agreements and emails for effective dependency. Further, various non-verbal communication has been playing a crucial role towards effective negotiations (Davies, 2014).
The negotiation has been a method that includes various people through utilizing persuasive communications for satisfying various needs. Here, the people involved have been entering those negotiations since they have believed that they are able to satisfy the necessities with effective solutions that could be obtained as they are acted alone. Here, the negotiations of the project managers have been “ongoing”. The manager must be involved under different kinds for negotiations daily. Next there must be two primary kinds of negotiation processes. They are integrative and destructive (Hopkin, P2017). Though the negotiations have been starting with integrative methods, the resources are needed to be allocated destructively. There have been three kinds of distinct roles of negotiations that are fulfilled by project managers. They are arbitrator, mediator and negotiator. Lastly, the project managers have been providing an outstanding system. This is also known as “approach” for negotiations.
The process of communicating back and forth has been the purpose to reach joint agreements regarding various distinct ideas and needs.
The process through which people has been attempting to persuade people has been providing that is needed in exchange for anything else. Further, method of various effectively opportunistically interactions has been two or more parties. This has been including various apparent conflicts seeking to perform better by jointly deciding actions that can be done otherwise.
Commercial Conflict Resolution
Since the commercial organizations has been free top contract and not contract with specific firms, the commercial conflicts has been arising between various businesses that working in relationships and type of contractual. The business settings has been providing various scopes for various conflicts to start (Wagner et al., 2014). This has been especially as the commercial contracts has comprised of every kind of specifications that are expected and implied by the parties as the contract conditions. Various construction contracts where the unexpected issues that arising commonly because of construction. This is a common example of the pattern. Further, the frequency of conflict has arising due to the fact the parties has been finding that uneconomical and hard to comply those terms that is expected to able to live with as the contract is agreed to. Moreover, they have been trying to escape the necessities that they have been finding onerous. Since, the parties have been in relationship what can be analyzed in terns of contracts commercial conflicts has been leading to one party. Thus they have been seeking legal resolutions.
This has been often resulting in the resolutions that is “less-than-creative”. This takes place even when the mediation or negotiation is used at the ultimate time to avert various trials. In order to do away with this, various industries has been creating elaborate systems anticipating various conflicts that are the normal part of complex relationships and creating more productive methods to deal with that as it arises (Davies, 2014). Here any business that has been playing compliance to contracting role within commercial firms include huge number of people has been holding numerous role. This reason is that they have been operating small business along with necessities that the commercial conflicts have been virtually inevitable. Performing efficient business has been relying on to undertake various effective distinctions taking place between various conflicts that has been demanding arbitration or legal processes. Here the clarifications and adjustments have been demanding minor terms and various other acceptable contracts.
The study has been helpful to understand trusts on commercial negotiations, political interest and collaboration systems on commercial negotiations. Further, it has been helpful to understand the social capital effect over commercial negotiations.
Disputes, Claims, Variations, and Arbitration
As the claims are made by contractors they are not managed clearly. This gives rise to arguments and disagreements over validities and quantum of claims also referred to as disputes. Since, there has been a substantial rise in number of construction claims, the implementing of efficient construction claim and dispute management has been required. The various disputes have been taking place between various parties towards construction projects that has been high concern to industries. The study of construction disputes and various reasons of those disputes have been vital (Phillips, 2013). This it can be said that construction disputes has been the reason of concern in all construction projects. The solution to the issue is to cautiously a control and avoids them to run smoothly over construction processes.
Various disputes between various parties of construction projects have been high concern to business industries. Here, effective process of claim management has been vital to assure that the contractual claims rising has been dealing with in the way it has been fair to every parties involved (Kwon, Lee & Shin, 2014). Moreover, it must include better training at this area where the professionals have been receiving a great help in order to understand the contract better. Further, the requirement of the contractor has been involved while the designing process has been improving constructability and reducing the possibility of design changes. This evolution of dispute has been leading to developing of wide range of alternative disputes that has included resolution opportunities.
The construction projects has been rousingly complex that has been resulting in complicated contract documents. This has been resulting in complicates disputes and claims. The claim is a legitimate request towards achieving contractual milestones and extra compensations on account of changes to contracts.
Commercial Negotiation in Government vs. Private Organization
The most primary different between various public and private entities has been the ownership. Here, the public sector is controlled by government where both federal and state governments have been lead by people managing and leading corporations. Because of the distinction of ownerships there have been various practices and policies about the process of procurements. The public sector companies have been run by various larger government entities. All the things to be done easily should be seen from the public eye (Kheni & Ackon, 2015). Moreover, there should be a audit trail where all the information must be accessible and open. Information like contracts opportunities timing and pricing has been involved in various reports that are made regularly. Further, there should be same scopes to provide government with entities wishing to perform business to meet those necessities.
Moreover, the transparency of private sector has not been clear out. As the private entities have not been totally visible the perquisites are upon them. Here, the private entities have not needed to supply similar scopes and they have been often withholding data that has not been needed to bid the suppliers. Further, they have never been reaching put the company and are never needed to publish contract awards in the similar way that is done by public entities. The private procurement practices and been including revenue from various investments, sales and various business related sectors. Here, the money has been centralized and it has been quickening the process of procurements. The public procurement methods on the other hand have been owned by the government. The main funding has been coming tax revenues (Low & Ong, 2014). Here, the funding is created from public and the primary concern has been allocating money appropriately for public interest. Besides the various ways in which public organizations have not possessed much control over procurements process. Here, they are needed to wait till the funding institutions gathers the needed revenues and discourse that properly prior they get engages to various procurement acts.
The study has been helpful to differentiate various processes of project negotiations. It has also included conflict managements and engagements of stakeholders around projects. Further, it has been helpful to understand various resource life-cycle and technology standards.
Applying Project Management Standards and Frameworks.
The PMBOK has been describing the project framework. This has been the primary structure to know project managements Here, there has been various frameworks, that are present and the project managers has been choosing that to work best for the projects under the business. Here, the organizations have been often leveraging various systems that ate specified to departmental units and kinds of projects (Haimes, 2015). For instance, PRINCE2 has been assimilating the primary PROMPTII process with the MITP of IBM methods. Again the CCPM or Critical Chain Project Management has been designed to deal with various uncertainties that are inherent to manage the projects. The XPM or Extreme Project Management has been the system meeting the necessities of various complicated and largely elastic projects. The XPM has been concerned more to manage the stakeholders with Gantt Chart and time schedules.
However, it must be reminded that every framework consists of their individual weaknesses and strengths, however, most significantly, the projects consists in their individual resources and needs. Further, various elements has been determining what framework has been needed to be employed, distinct nature of projects and various departments through the method (Davies, 2014). For instance, PRINCE 2 systems have been using to control the costs within the scenario where the costs have been overrunning has been much common. Further, the management has been slowing them down highly. The CCPM has been needed to be introduced to the scenario where there have been various challenges in order to complete the project within time. This has been also including customers who needs new features or develop the complete products that have been external to the project scopes. In this case, the agile framework can be placed for accommodating various changes instead of any method to overcome that change.
Since project management has been evolving in due time, there has been a huge sector of best practices of method of goes and frameworks. Choosing the proper system has been important to bring projects successfully on budget and time. Further, there has been gauging of project and knowing the necessities. Thus it has been matching various resources and understanding degree to which these might change. As one undertakes careful approach, choosing the proper framework has been likely completing the project with high range of success.
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