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Predicting Resilience And Cyberbully Victimization

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Question:

Discuss about the Predicting Resilience and Cyberbully Victimization.
 
 

Answer:

Introduction

With the emergence of globalization, there has been the increase in the consumption parameter. This parameter in later condition had affected the physical, emotional, mental as well as spiritual well-being of the individuals. In that context, it is necessary to keep the record over the consumption of all the resources and to evaluate the effect of the consumption upon the consumer behaviour in relation to the cultural influences. Thus the paper is supposed to concentrate on a basic problem running in the society by the result of consumption. This problem is the cyber bullying. It is quite well known that the consumption is of two types, overconsumption and under consumption (Bayraktar, et al., 2015).

Under consumption is indicates the condition of recession and stagnation that leads to low consumer demand. At the same time, Cohen, Prayag & Moital said that, the overconsumption is the process in which the consumer demand crosses every level without any limitation. So the concept of cyber bullying comes under the portion of overconsumption where there is the high demand of the consumer regarding the usage of any particular resource. Thus the primary concern of this paper that needs to be highlighted is the basic of the consumer behaviour (Cohen, Prayag & Moital, 2014).

As per Cohen, Prayag & Moital, consumer behaviour is the part that studies the basic needs of the individuals regarding the process how they select and use the services by satisfying their needs and behaviour with respect to the consumer as well as their society. Basically, the consumer behaviour is the blending mixture of the psychological, ethical and cultural perspective of any consumer. It is because the consideration of these facts will help in categorization of the process to understand the decision-making process of the consumer. It also further depends upon the demographics as well as the behavioural variables of the individual. But out of the entire factor that matters the most is the cultural factor that has its influence over the emergence of overconsumption (Cohen, Prayag & Moital, 2014).

The consumer behaviour is, therefore, dependent upon the cultural activities. The reason behind it is it becomes the cultural factors include the unstated assumptions, values, communicating, standards of perceiving and believing. The different cultural dimensions ultimately affect the purchase behaviour of the customers. In relation to the consumer behaviour and cultural influence, there has been of a wide variety with reference to cyber bullying. And depending upon that the matter of cyber bullying becomes the matter of fact from both domestic as well as global perspective (Goodboy & Martin, 2015).

 

Ethical, Psychological and Cultural Perspective that aggravates Cyber bullying

According to Görzig & Ólafsson, cyber bullying is basically the concept that involves the use of technology to fulfil the aim of threatening, harassing, embarrassing or targeting any specific individual. While going some deep into the concept of cyber bullying it is mostly found among the young people. But in any case, the case comprises of the involvement of the adult in cyber bullying at that it can be considered as the cyber-harassment which has many legal consequences. In recent times the concept of cyber bullying has taken a steep rise resulting in a great contributor of the suicide cases done by the high profile young adolescents (Görzig & Ólafsson, 2013).

According to Horner & Swarbrooke, the cyberbullying differs from the case of traditional bullying. In fact, it can be said that the cyber bullying provides ambiguity to the action carried out during bullying. This action is not possible in traditional bullying. The more significant reason here is the bullies do not confront the victim and their reaction without having any repentance (Horner & Swarbrooke, 2016). In other words, the cyber bullying is an opportunities activity because the consequences to the victim are done without any kind of physical interaction along with little planning.

In addition, the cyber bullying has a less amount of being caught. Thus the evidence concludes that the cyber bullying is mostly done by the young students those who are having the high amount of access to their computers, phones or tablets. It clearly indicates that there are some other factors that basically affect their ethical, psychological and cultural condition (Konijn & Den, 2016).

The cyber bullying is quite well known to happen in the adolescents. In that context, the parents, as well as teachers, were more concerned because it will make the child to lose their ethics. In that case, the cyber bullying is of various kinds that can be done through impersonation, abusive messages along with many other processes that will affect the ethical concern of the individual. Thus while looking into the ethical concern that takes the person to aggravate the nature of bullying (Konijn & Den, 2016).

In that context, the consumer behaviour is always been a great interest of value to the marketers. Depending upon that, the marketers understand proper needs of the customers regarding their ideology about the products as well as environment. Again the customer behaviour is further influenced by the cultural, social, psychological and personal factors. Out of all the factors, the cultural, as well as psychological factors, influences the most. Thus while considering the consumer behaviour, there have been the major factors that influence the decision making of the consumers that are the risk aversion and innovativeness. The concept of risk aversion is the process that adds up to the nature that how the consumers must need to be certain as well as sure regarding the decision of purchasing. At the same time, the innovativeness is the fact that is one of the global measures which refers to a certain degree up to which the customers re willing to take any kind of chances to incorporate new ways in the businesses. In the case of cyber bullying, the part of the consumer that is affected the most is the behaviour. The behavioural perspective of the individual emphasizes the role of the external environmental factors involved in the process of learning. Thus the consumer behaviour involves certain activities, decisions or experiences that taken attempt to make any effective decision. 

 

Tradition of Ethical Thinking

Those ethical Thinking are the grieving, drama, harassment and relationship violence. These four factors collectively form the base by which the individual gets influenced by bullying activities (Cohen, Prayag & Moital, 2014).

Griefing: The griefing is the activity that basically provokes the person to get angry or annoying and irritating people online. In this case, the perpetrator chooses such person whom he only knows online or does not know. In this condition perpetrator generally achieves what he wants and if it is prolonged for a long time period it will lead to harassment. Mostly it can be said that it is the most frequent process of bullying carried out in public (Konijn & Den, 2016).

Drama: It is another kind of bullying that basically happens over the digital media. And specifically, it occurs in between the people that they know each other online or offline. In this case, the perpetrator is very well mixed with the target (Goodboy & Martin, 2015).

Harassment: This is mostly known and dangerous bullying activity because during harassment the bullying becomes personal as well as persistent. It is carried out in the form of threatening or abusive text messages which in mostly done in private without having any witness. 

Relationship Violence: This kind of bullying has recently risen due to the technological advancement that resulted in the condition where the teens make the proper use of it. As per Konijn & Den, with the consideration of the relationship violence, one partner is the perpetrator and the other one is the target. And in this matter the perpetrator stalks the target by threatening, impersonating their partner on social media and sending them abusive messages (Konijn & Den, 2016).

Majorly this kind of cyber bullying includes the blackmail or pressurization done for physical intimacy or sex. Through this activity, the perpetrator embarrasses their partner on social media. Continuous cyber bullying in the case of relationship violence will lead to the activity of sexual assault and consensual relationship.

Comparison of Utilitarianism & Deontology

Utilitarianism basically focus on the consequences of actions and makes right choices morally which directly or indirectly increase the “the Good”. Here “the Good” is the neutral agent on which everyone has right no matter what it is achieved by one’s own agency or not.

But on the other side Deontology focus on duties and rules. It defined that some choices are morally forbidden no matter how good is the consequences is. It also depends upon some moral norm and each moral agent need to obey such norms (Konijn & Den, 2016).

Consumer insights are gained from utilitarianism is that its overly demanding and Deontology basically instruct the consumer to do certain things and treat well to friends and family members (Solomon, Russell-Bennett & Previte, 2013).

These ethical thinking helps to make better decision as it tells us what is right and what is wrong and at the same it tells about what is good for friends and family also. So it helps to improve the sustainable consumption (Solomon, Russell-Bennett & Previte, 2013).

While considering psychologically the parents as well as the educators are always worried so that this should not entrap their kid anyways. In that case, the bullying in relation to the psychological condition occurs when the kid is very much deeply hurt regarding any condition that can affect his or her mental condition. Still, the increased usage of cell phone or computers enhances the revert action carried out by the students. Basically, the cyber bullying in the young students is the resultant of the school or college violence. This is one of the major reasons behind the bullying (Solomon, Russell-Bennett & Previte, 2013).

It is generally seen in the behaviour in which the individual violates the rules and mission of the school and his or her verbal activity changes from to normal to critical and daring. Another factor is the aggression. The presence of this behaviour within the individual will turn the environment full of chaos. The reason behind it is the individual who is the perpetrator becomes hostile, violent, and aggressive along with the attitude that makes another hurt.

Next to that is the feeling of a victim. The individual becomes the perpetrator when he or she develops the feeling of being a victim. In that case, the individual suffers a lot that provoked the development of bullying nature. Actually, this case is also the resultant of the bullying carried out generally. It also changes the in-class behaviour of the individual along with the performance. In all these aspects the school bully is one of the processes in which an individual or the perpetrator uses his or her power to frighten others for a prolonged period of time. So with this behaviour the educational institutions face the bullying in their place. Out of that 66.7 % of students are found to be teasing others, 65.3% of students are found to be disobeying the instructions, 59.7% of students are found to extortion and 62.5% of students are involved in lying (Tobias & Chapanar, 2016).

 


Apart from that the specific reasons that bring the aggravation to the cyber bullying are the 25% academic achievement, 61% appearance, 17% race, 15% sexuality, 15% of financial status, 11% religion and 20% other reasons. At the same time, it is witnessed that most of the cyber bullying are found in the social media. So the action of cyber bullying acts 39% on Facebook, 29% on Twitter, 22% on YouTube and 22% of Instagram. Depending upon the cyber bullying the behavioural and psychological aspects of the individual changes accordingly that eventually acts upon the community.

Coming to the aspect of culture it is the sum up of the values, customs, learned beliefs that have the direct impact on the behavioural aspect of the individual. In that case as mentioned above the consumer behaviour majorly affected by the cultural variations. With the collaboration of the values as well as beliefs there will have a creation of mental images which in later condition brings variation in the behaviour of the individuals? As it is said from the above section that the consumer has the great relation with the culture so in this matter the high usage of technology depends upon any particular place (Tobias & Chapanar, 2016).  So is the usage of cell phone and computer usage that diverted the mind of the individuals. With that respect the bullies carry out the cyber bullying. The violence in schools also contains many conspicuous threats against the fellow students that outrage the aggressiveness of the individual resulting into bullying.

This resulted into the becoming anti-social, feeling unwell, mood swings, falling behind in the study and being depressed. Thus the places like the USA is the place where most of the students were involved in bullying activities but on the other hand Japan though it is technologically advanced still it is not that much involved in the bullying activities (Konijn & Den, 2016). It indicates clearly that not only the technological advancement is necessary but the culture the fact that drives the mind of the individual.

The reaction of the parents in relation to any kind of activity also reflects the cultural attribute of that place. Like in a survey in schools in USA, it has been concluded that the 52% of students are said regarding someone saying them hurtful online, 53% of the said that they had reacted with hurtful meaning to someone, 43% have been bullied and 35% have been threatened and 58% of students have not informed their parents. In this manner, the cyber bullying sometimes leaves the individual extremely upset or afraid or totally distressed (Horner & Swarbrooke, 2016).

Cultural Theory:

The culture, therefore, influences various important facts that address the deep insights regarding the consumer behaviour or how the consumer takes the decision regarding purchasing (Görzig & Ólafsson, 2013). Thus the theories reflected in this part will help in addressing the important issues of how the consumer behaves while buying individually or in groups. The theory that reflects various effective marketing processes, as well as impact on the consumers, are the Theory of Reasoned Action, Motivation-Need Theory, Impulse Buying and EKB Model (Görzig & Ólafsson, 2013).

Reasoned Action: This theory will provide the best action posed by the consumers which must be based on their intentions. The theory depicts the customer as the rational actors who basically choose to show their act at their best interests. As per the theory, the specificity is the critical decision-making process attained by the customers (Goodboy & Martin, 2015). 

Motivation-Need Theory: This theory engrosses the action created by the people who act to fulfil the needs of the consumer which is based upon the five-part priority system. This system includes some specific characters such as physiological, love, safety, esteem and self-actualization. This theory specifically acts through the incorporation of mashlows hierarchy theories. In that case, the customers are being motivated to make the prioritization of the purchasing processes towards the base of the hierarchy (Goodboy & Martin, 2015).

Impulse Buying Theory: In this theory, Hawkins Stern believes the idea of impulse behavior that gets fits alongside the decisions which customer take basing upon the rational action. The process of impulse decision is carried out by the action of external stimuli which mostly do not have any relation to the traditional decision-making. Thus the impulse decision goes on with the four categories that become an ocean of opportunities for the marketers.

 


EKB Model: This theory describes the consumer behavior along with the decision making which is based on the expansion of the Theory of Reasoned Action. In that case, te theory goes on with a five step process which helps the customers to take exact decision what he or she wants to. The consumers, therefore, get affected by the decision making phase along with many external influences (Goodboy & Martin, 2015).

Grid describes about the different people in the group and about the different roles they take on. At one end there are many and varied interpersonal difference and at other end there are significant similarity between people (Horner & Swarbrooke, 2016).

Group helps to describes the bond between strong people. It helps to find the weak bonds between people and strong binds between people.

 

Group

Weak bonds between people

Strong bonds between people

Grid

Many and varied interpersonal differences

 

 

Significant similarity between people

 

Fatalism

 

Collectivism

 

Individualism

 

Egalitarianism

Each factors of the grid- group helps to determine the consumer behaviour, as it analyse the bond between people and how people behave at different roles.

As mentioned above cyber bullying is the activity that can produce a negative impact on the individual’s mental, emotional and physical processes. In that case, it can or cannot cause any kind of harm or injuries rather it will definitely result in the stress related illness. The major thing that has to be considered is bullying is that kind of activity that satisfies the anger or aggressive feeling of any individual who has been like a perpetrator for a certain time period. And mostly in that time period there will have the resultant f depression, higher absenteeism, and reduced performance.

 In addition, Goodboy & Martin said that cyber bullying makes the person unable to express his or her feelings as well as opinions (Goodboy & Martin, 2015). For that reason, it can be said that the bullies or the perpetrator have an unsocial environment which only results in harming or targeting others as a result of anger or frustration.

Thus while it is viewed in terms of sustainability it is seen that this action is not permanent and it becomes permanent then it has the only negative impact over the individual. It is immaterial whether permanent or not the sole impact of bullying is negative only that results in the deterioration of the individual involved in it. Thus the cyber bullying can be said to have a less amount of sustainability (Cohen, Prayag & Moital, 2014).

Conclusion

The paper brings out the major highlights in terms of activities involved in the cyber bullying. In addition, it also includes all the aspect by which the bullying activity can be raised and depending upon that the behavioural and psychological condition of the individual also changes. Thus it can be concluded that the culture laid down the foundation of which there has been the overconsumption resulting into cyber bullying. 

 

References

Bayraktar, F., Machackova, H., Dedkova, L., Cerna, A. and Šev?íková, A., 2015. Cyberbullying: The discriminant factors among cyberbullies, cybervictims, and cyberbully-victims in a Czech adolescent sample. Journal of interpersonal violence, 30(18), pp.3192-3216.

Cohen, S.A., Prayag, G. and Moital, M., 2014. Consumer behaviour in tourism: Concepts, influences and opportunities. Current Issues in Tourism, 17(10), pp.872-909.

Goodboy, A.K. and Martin, M.M., 2015. The personality profile of a cyberbully: Examining the Dark Triad. Computers in human behavior, 49, pp.1-4.

Görzig, A. and Ólafsson, K., 2013. What makes a bully a cyberbully? Unravelling the characteristics of cyberbullies across twenty-five European countries. Journal of Children and Media, 7(1), pp.9-27.

Horner, S. and Swarbrooke, J., 2016. Consumer behaviour in tourism. Routledge.

Harada, E. and Nishino, Y., 2016. Fundamental Research on Cyberbullying (1): Who Gets Involved in Being a Cyberbully?. International Journal of Psychology, 51, p.1160.

Konijn, E.A. and Den Hamer, A., 2016. Explaining the Victim-to-cyberbully Chain through a Cyclic Process Model in a Longitudinal Study. International Journal of Psychology, 51, p.837.

Jacobs, N.C., Völlink, T., Dehue, F. and Lechner, L., 2014. Online Pestkoppenstoppen: Systematic and theory-based development of a web-based tailored intervention for adolescent cyberbully victims to combat and prevent cyberbullying. BMC public health, 14(1), p.396.

Schiffman, L., O'Cass, A., Paladino, A. and Carlson, J., 2013. Consumer behaviour. Pearson Higher Education AU.

Schütte, H. and Ciarlante, D., 2016. Consumer behaviour in Asia. Springer.

Solomon, M.R., Russell-Bennett, R. and Previte, J., 2013. Consumer behaviour: Buying, having, being. Pearson Australia.

Tobias, S. and Chapanar, T., 2016. Predicting resilience after cyberbully victimization among high school students. Journal of Psychological and Educational Research (JPER), 24(1), pp.7-25.

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