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Project And Communication Systems

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Submit Literature Review of best practice models for Project and Program Information & Communication Systems.



Project Background

The best practice model for project and program information & communication systems is been discussed for a new project undertaken by the Bruns Geoff Dairy Services developed as a small enterprise under the Australian Small business Ombudsman (ASBEFO). The practices of every organization are changing with the tides of time and technology, making the small businesses to grow larger and employ more and more people in its folds.

Project Objectives and Justification

The way the projects undertaken are being handled along with the practices adopted for communication of information through technology to enhance the business growth and prosperity is being discussed. The practices that yields the best results for the business and are proven with time and its efficient delivery is most competent for the business are the best practices. The models which suites the business and its outputs are considered as the best practices for the business (Schwalbe, 2015).

Assumptions and Constrains

The assumptions made in this case are that the person in the business knows the use of internet tools and its use in the business and feed the data in real time. Further, the stakeholders of the businesses or clients that the dairy caters to are integrated in the business loop via the business apps built by the firm to receive the real time data for its further use. The constrain in the case is that the level of knowledge needed for each people or roll in the business is assumed and is not the universal one to be considered that it’s the best model to be used (Burke, 2013).

2. Literature Review

Overview of the Project Information Tools

The business of Bruns Geoff Dairy Services uses the android based apps for the clients and the people in the business as it is cheap and is the most used data platform via internet tools that is associable via mobile phones. The inputs from various sources are gathered to let the leaders in the business have an inward look into the business and develop the plans likewise.


Factors for Information Management

The organization develops a course of action to be taken for with the entire project is been studied for the details like the skills required. Planning of how many people with along with skills and the necessary tools and technology needed for the best business productivity and services are to be ensured, before the execution. The project management role and competencies are to be ensured first before executing any practice. The next step would be to put the right man in the right place to do what they are expected to do and develop strategies and plans for further execution. A knowledge base and support portal which knows the job and is experienced has to monitor each and every step of this processes and make assessments to do further improvements (Meredith et. al., 2013). The business can use to assess the demands of the market to schedule its production. The people and the stakeholders too gets involved in this web of technology where the information flow is smooth and the people knows what needs to be done and when for the targeted results. 

The fist objective of the business would be to get all the people in the project come into the look for the needed to happen. Thus the practices that the business needs to adopt have to be the one which has a proven track of best business outcome. The project management information system (PMIS) is the information system that is developed within the business to give the business managers a real life feed of business data to take appropriate decisions on time. The leader of the firm in his level maty implements the needful communication for the production demands for the people to get involved. They may also use this tool to project their intuitions so that the sales can make strategies in short and long term accordingly. The business scheduling tools like cattle feeding or washing time, milking times, output per animal etc are the data that is been fed to get the results as per the business expectations and also to make the needed forecasts for the time to come (Patanakul & Shenhar, 2012).


Control and Flow of Information 

Information and Communication technology is the extended term for the modern day technology of Information Technology (IT). The role of IT business is diverse as on date and its integration has made the businesses more competitive to excel in their sector. The business can draw the needed market information along with results of various other markets along with knowledge of the business subject, in this case dairy farming. All these makes the business more integrated in its people to people communication both internally and externally. The internal communication in the business deals with the business operations along with market trend forecasting through the live data of various retails inline. The sales and demand figures are displayed in real time to the business chief to make them competent to take the needful decisions for the problems (Bardach & Patashnik, 2011).

The monitoring of the project application on ground is done with the intake of data from various sources and the failure of overall planning or parts of it along with execution for best implications can be monitored with the data the projects generates with expected targets. The people at all levels have to have a control to the business data on an keed to know bases where the feed for the shift are in accordance to the hierarchy. Thus the monitoring abilities give the business to recover from the changes or deviation of the project plan as per the need. Hence the design of the data base is important to make the monitoring be done on the right aspects to generate the best results (Papke-Shields & Boyer-Wright, 2017).

Sources and Types of Information Management

The Information Technology and its association with business is since 1980s and till now it has seen enormous amount of growth and reformation. This has effected and was also effective due to the enhanced communication and satellite technologies. The availability of this technology in the hand held gadgets like Smartphone has made it successful and makes information reach people with ease. The communication between the different levels and the knowledge that each needs to know are made evident to the people in the business for the results to come as per the expected lines.

The transactions in the business finance world have seen a great deal of reform since then. Further, internet portals via IT have reached the gadgets which makes real time monitoring possible with effective use. The complications of the old age problems of forecasting along with payments and transactions have been made easy with it. The knowledge portals of the organization have to be maintained in a way that people in the business knows what is happening and do the needful to make all aware of the job that they do which is helpful for the dairy workers to enhance their knowledge for better business performance (Zuppo, 2013). The communication is a both sided game where the internal and external consumers of the business interacts. The business sets the level of communication managing who can see what and where. 

Eugene Bardach (2011) gives the best or smart practice analysis with an eightfold path. The suggestion is to develop realistic expectations when seeking for the best practices as the practices may have its own strength and weaknesses which if not checked may produce unfavourable results. Analyzing smart practices to see if the practices have achieved the objectives set to get the smart goals in place. The analysis gives the indication of the success or failure of the practices which may make the leaders of the business change course of action as and how and when needed. The efficiency of the practices to achieve the goals for the business is important where the observations of the practices are needed. The mechanism should be able to give the business the ability of generating competence with the ability and means of goal achievement with cost competence. The vulnerabilities of the business may lead to fall of smart prices (Schipper & Silvius, 2017). The communication technology gives a good clue for the business stakeholders to point out the bump ahead to keep the business prepared for it which is also a necessity brought in by Communication technology.


After observing the process the suitability of the process is determined and adopted as the smart practice in a business which may change if the circumstance demands it to. Further, Kerzner (2013) explores the issues pertaining to completeness and comparability which in a technical way suggests if the practice is the best one or not. Thus in the view of business comparative process in terms of methodologies the best practices has to prove its worth to be adopted by the business as its best practices. Thus the comparative sampling of the process of various businesses in the same sector is advised for the selection of the best methodology for a business model in a business to be established.

However, Fleischmann (2012) suggests that the leader should have both the technical as well as leadership skills to manage the interactions for a successful project management. So each individual role is selected which is needed for the businesses best outcomes along with legal needs as per the laws are done to access who is responsible for what. The training needs too get exposed along with the need for best skill set generation for the business needs can be arranged. The career path of the personnel in the process sees growth along with the growth of the business. The project team need to have the knowledge of the process which are undertaken to give the best support to the process. The development of the people as per the needed feedback of the consumers and the needs as studied through communication technology helps in making them competent to lead the future business.  This gives the people in the team to have the resources needed to be competent and deliver (Fleischmann, 2012).

Communication Flowchart with Tools

The flow of the project is dependent on the way the aspects of the project are occurring. Any problem occurring in the project can be resolved with active communication between the people concerned in that part of the execution. The best way to reach is via voice call and in the field of the execution like healthcare for cattle, arranging the best nutrients for the cattle and determining the dairy output as per the previous day or shifts records can be shared in among the employees with effective use of technology making the predictions come from all sources which furthermore makes the decision of forecasting stronger for the leader. The lack of information may be the case of delay or ineffective process leading to troubles in the process. However, information do not surpass the management or leadership as it has to be executed for the best of business use by the leader where the information has to direct to actions (Rontos et. al., 2014).

The Project Manager’s Role


The interactivity of the business with other stakeholders had been made easy by the smart technology if IT. The real time inputs from the stakeholder’s makes the business forecast well and manages the internal communication for the best business outcomes. The use of technology is however dependent on the kind of business that is been done and what suites the purpose the best which is developed for the business by the project manager as per the needs and wants along with ability of people to use it in mind. The grievance within the team during the project as well as gathering the necessary arrangements in the process of operations all can be assisted by communication with good use of IT. The interactivity is made simple with Mobile phone apps along with back up supports for all kind of devices making the data to accumulate. These data can be used by the business in the long term to access the business conditions as well as forecast based on past trends (Oviawe, 2016).


The businesses use information for a host of its needs like understanding its own stand in the market compared to competitors, have the forecasting well done to have lean and cost effective production line and maintain the demand with supply and arrange production likewise.  The businesses also do recognize the market changes from the real time data to develop the best policies as per the business strengths to make cost effective process for best outcome. The process within the business also needs a free and fare assessments where the employees in the team have to be clear of the objectives and thus schedule the processes likewise. It’s a process which makes the entire business mechanism work with a smooth flow and better value to offer in the process to the end uses (Heagney, 2016). The hierarchy of information can be chosen with the business needs which would be translated by the manager or supervisor to let know the people of the expectations and the response mechanism in the business.

Communication and Information Coordination

The value of the information is another aspect which the leader knows the best. The information to be used to make the decision or not is up to the leader so the information value is subjective to the outcomes post execution. The businesses have external and internal information to plan its course of action ahead. The control of information is the aspect which the leader decides upon the hierarchy along with the status of the communication like external or internal. The external and internal communications are different as for the business is concerned. The work environment is also been made collaborative in the internal communications where the information has to flow and the leader makes a plan for it. The collaborative atmosphere with the use of information and communication can make the project go in the right direction with the mutual collaboration (LaLone and Tapia, 2016). The vast corporate knowledge along with competitors’ assessments can make the team know what is expected and they can form opinion and give their views to make it possible for business to execute.     

Best Practices Planning and Control of Policies

The project management information systems can be best used with the people who have previous exposure to the information systems and are aware of the modern day technology of mobile internet. The mobile internet is a great source to make the people in the business now and learn about their subject to develop the skills further and be productive for the business. Every project has its unique set of information use and need. Nevertheless, the business has to decide what information to take and what not as formal set of information or as informal. The plan of the project at every stage has to be set with information flow mode where the feed can be manually done from distant places in real time to give the business an idea of the future. Transactions are held with IT making the business concentrate on the production and distribution more in its growth stages (Klimova, 2015).


The business processes along with the stakeholders have a great role in making the right things happen with time. The social media for an example is a source of informal information and can be formally used the business for promotion. Further the role of the project execution monitoring via communication systems and more is also possible with the right use of the information and communication technology. The data base for the use of business is the priority as the need and use of data along with controls are to be devised by the business leader to make the project successful (Martinelli & Milosevic, 2016).

Ethical Considerations

All the ethical considerations are kept intact where the information of the business and the needful data are sourced from the publicly available sources and published data from past studies. No information is been used for any commercial benefits and has been used for the studies strictly (Turner, 2016).



Bardach, E. & Patashnik, E. (2011). A practical guide for policy analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Burke, R. (2013). Project management: planning and control techniques. New Jersey, USA.

Fleischmann, A. (2012). Subject-oriented business process management. Heidelberg: Springer.

Heagney, J. (2016). Fundamentals of project management. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.

Kerzner, H. (2013). Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.

Klimova, B. (2015). Teaching and Learning Enhanced by Information and Communication Technologies. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186, 898-902.

LaLone, N. & Tapia, A. (2016). Fluctuations, technologies and media: social change and sociology change. Information, Communication & Society, 19(5), 559-564.

Martinelli, R. J., & Milosevic, D. Z. (2016). Project management toolbox: tools and techniques for the practicing project manager. John Wiley & Sons.

Meredith, J. R., Mantel Jr, S. J., & Shafer, S. M. (2013). Project management in practice. Wiley Global Education.

Oviawe, J. (2016). Information and Communication Technology in Technical Education. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 3(5).

Papke-Shields, K. E., & Boyer-Wright, K. M. (2017). Strategic planning characteristics applied to project management. International Journal of Project Management, 35(2), 169-179.

Patanakul, P., & Shenhar, A. J. (2012). What project strategy really is: The fundamental building block in strategic project management. Project Management Journal, 43(1), 4-20.

Rontos, K., Nagopoulos, N. & Flora, T. (2014). Social Elites and New Communication Methods/Information Technologies: The Digital Divide. Archives of Business Research, 2(5), 29-46.

Schipper, R., & Silvius, G. (2017). The Sustainable Project Management Canvas. The Journal of Modern Project Management, 4(3).

Schwalbe, K. (2015). Information technology project management. Cengage Learning.

Snijders, P., Wuttke, T., Zandhuis, A. and Newton, S. (2013). PMBOK Guide. 1st ed. Zaltbommel: Van Haren Publishing.

Turner, R. (2016). Gower handbook of project management. Routledge.

Zuppo, C. (2013). Defining ICT in a Boundaryless World: The Development of a Working Hierarchy. International Journal of Managing Information Technology, 4(3), pp.13-22.


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