Describe about the Project Management Leadership for Integral Business Part.
Leaders are an integral part of the business, as they facilitate the organization in enhancing the profitability in an efficient manner. With the engagement of the proper leadership style, the organization can easily identify the key development areas of the business (Johansen 2012). In this context, Lauren, the project manager of the organization named Sharp Printing has been facing challenges in executing the process in an effectual manner. Sharp printing has tried to invent a color laser printer for the consumer at the low cost of less than $200. It was quite challenging tasks for Lauren to accomplish the particular project within the given budget. There were two prime challenges to Lauren including budgeting and time. By analyzing the entire process, Lauren has come across the fact that the budget is short for the project. According to the budget of Lauren, it was overrun by 20%. The particular project was challenging for almost all employees and management team because the estimated cost was too low for the project. The prime objective of the Sharp Printing was to engage high numbers of customers in their business so that they could achieve the high sales revenue within a short timeframe. Hence, the organization has planned to engage the customer by providing high quality color laser printing at a jaw-dropping price.
In this context, Lauren should have followed a particular leadership style for enhancing the process of production. By discussing the leadership style, it can be assessed that there are mainly five types of leadership styles including autocratic leadership, democratic leadership, quiet leadership and Transformational Leadership (Yeung et al. 2012). Besides this, laissez-faire, participative and transactional leadership are also different types of leadership styles. The autocratic leadership style indicates the process of providing commands to the employees to execute a particular task. In this leadership style, managers are the least bother about obtaining some suggestion from the employees in the business. For instance, if Lauren utilizes the autocratic leadership, then he would not be able to take suggestions or feedbacks from the employees and staffs. Consequently, this particular project would be able to accomplish within a certain timeframe. Without having the suggestion and feedbacks of the employees and other staffs from the design department, Lauren may not be able to conduct the project in an effective manner. On the contrary, Autocratic leadership would facilitate the management in achieving the goals and objectives of the business (Schoemaker, Krupp and Howland 2013). Besides the autocratic leadership style, Laissez-faire leadership also has some drawbacks, as the leaders under this particular leadership style show the lack of direct supervision of employees and often it fails to provide regular feedbacks to employees. Hence, it can be assessed that Lauren should not acquire the particular leadership, as it may not facilitate her to execute the process in an efficient manner. Unlike the discussed leadership styles, participative or the democratic leadership style would be the best possible solution for the project manager of the company named Lauren. In the democratic or participative leadership, the manager allows the employees and staffs to provide their individual suggestions on a particular subject (Neumann and Neumann 2013). Most of the business analysts have agreed with the fact that the participative leadership style plays an integral role in the business for enhancing the organizational performance. On the other hand, the participative leadership style facilitates the organization in achieving the goals and objectives of the business in an effective manner.
In this context, Lauren, the project manager of Sharp Printing should have followed the participative leadership style for conducting the particular project in an effectual manner. By analyzing the particular scenario, it can be assessed that the higher management needs to take the suggestions and feedbacks from the employees so that they could obtain an idea about the accomplishment of the project. Lauren understands that the estimated cost and budget of the project may be overrun. Consequently, the project manager needs to conduct a meeting with the key shareholders along with the employees of the company. Without engaging the experienced employees of the design department, Lauren would not be able to enhance the execution process in an appropriate manner. Besides, the project manager of the company needs to involve the employees from the research and development department so that they could produce better ideas for accomplishing the project within a short allocated budget. On the other hand, the project manager of the company needs to understand the requirements of the project. By engaging the research and development team into the discussion process, the project manager may be able to understand the key development areas of the project. According to Lauren, the estimated cost for the project was $1,250,000, which was 20% extra from the budget made by the management of Sharp Print.
There are several leadership theories including Trait theory, contingency theory of leadership, and behavioral theory of leadership. According to trait theory, people are born or made up with certain qualities that facilitate them in excelling the roles and responsibilities of the leaders in the business. These qualities include intelligence, sense of responsibilities, creativity, and other values. The focus of the trait theory is to analyze the mental, physical and social characteristics for gaining more understanding about the characteristics of the leaders. However, there are many shortfalls of the trait leadership, which may decrease the potentiality of the leaders. In this context, Lauren has faced several challenges in executing the project in an effective manner. The prime challenges to Lauren were to manage the cost and time for the project. In most of the cases, the trait theory has been facilitating the organization in providing the unbiased solutions to the business. Hence, it can be assessed that the project manager should have followed the trait theory for enhancing the business opportunities in an effective manner. On the other hand, the behavioral theory of leadership indicates the process where the employees or staffs follow the behaviors of the leaders. Hence, it can be assessed that the leaders are the most important factor of the business that enhances the business process execution in an effective manner. Hancock, Dyk and Jones (2012) have argued that the leaders are responsible for managing the productivity of the business. Besides, the effective leaders facilitate in reducing employee-related issues in an effective manner. In this context, the project manager named Lauren needs to follow the leadership traits for analyzing the current issues of the business. Moreover, the leaders play an integral role in managing the workforce in an effective manner. In this scenario, Lauren needs to enhance the workforce of the organization to execute the particular project within the given timeframe. By motivating the employees in the organization, the project manager would be able to enhance the workforce in an effectively, which would facilitate the management to reduce the estimated time of the project.
In the twentieth century, most of the organizations shifted their focus from Taylorism to humanism due to the demand of the different management agenda. However, the Taylorism is based on the authority to force the individual for carrying out a particular task in an efficient manner (Taylor and Woodhams 2012). In the human resource management, there are several traditions for achieving goals and objectives of the business. Taylorism and humanism are two individual traditions of the human resource management. These two traditions of the human resource management could be identified through its individual principles. During the mid-century, most of the organizations follow these traditions to manage employees in the business (Aquilecchia 2013). Without implementing a particular theory on the human resource management, the organizations would not be able to enhance the business opportunities in an appropriate manner. Depending on different principles and characteristics, both of these traditions provide distinct outcomes. In the modern business era, most of the organizations follow their different strategic approaches for executing a particular task. In this context, the organization called Sharp Printer made a business objective of producing the color laser printer at the low price of less than $200. For achieving this particular goal, the organization has made different strategic approaches. The project manager of the organization has identified the fact that the cost and time for the project in this context, the job design of the project is very important. Without including the proper job design, the organization would not be able to execute the tasks in an effective manner.
Taylorism indicates a scientific process that facilitates in achieving the goals and objectives of the business. Besides, the particular approach to the human resource management indicates the theory of management analyzing and synthesizing the workflows in an effectual manner (Melé 2013). Fredrick Winslow Taylor discussed that the scientific management is the best rational method for executing a task. Moreover, the particular theory of the human resource management can enhance the productivity and profitability of the business. During the mid-century, most of the organizations focused on the implementing the Taylorism approach in the business, as it facilitated them in enhancing the productivity of the business in an effectual manner. On the contrary, Catao and Melo (2013) have argued that the Taylorism not only facilitates the organization to enhance the production of the business but also improves the workability of the employees. By enhancing the performance of the employees, the organization would not be able to improve the productivity. Consequently, it would lead the organization to face certain downfall in the competitive market. The Taylor scientific management process depends on four underlying principles. First, the management needs to replace the rule of thumb work methods with the scientific method for enhancing the production of the business. Second, the employees need to be trained, selected or developed scientifically so that their workability can be improved (Aquilecchia 2013). According to Taylor, each worker must be fitted to certain jobs based on their skills. Hence, it can be assessed that the prime job of the employer is to fit people into jobs and train them scientifically for achieving the maximum productivity. Third, the organization needs to provide the instruction and supervision to each employee and staffs so that they could execute the task in an effective manner. Finally, the specialization and collaboration within the organization need to be conveyed to the employees.
On the other hand, the humanism theory is opposite to the Taylorism. According to the humanism theory, the management should make the job fit for the employees so that the employees could deliver high performance to the business. As per the particular theory, the management needs to provide motivation, satisfaction to the employees for enhancing the workability of the staffs in an efficient manner. The particular theory focuses on motivating the employees for improving the productivity of the business. However, the management needs to take some approaches for implementing the humanism theory in the business. First, the management needs to consider the basic dignity and the humanity of the employees and customers. Second, every business should include the ethical judgment and thinking. Finally, every business decision should be made by taking different suggestions from the employees, and management.
In this context, the project manager of the organization called Sharp Print faces challenges in executing the project due to lack of time and budget. The estimated time and cost of the project overrun the management expectation. Consequently, the particular project becomes challenging task to the project manager. Hence, it can be assessed that the humanism theory will be appropriate for the organization, as it could facilitate them in motivating the employees in an efficient manner. On the other hand, the humanism approach is more convincing for the business enhancement within a certain timeframe. From the end of the twentieth century, most of the organizations focused on the humanism approach rather implementing the Taylorism approach into the business. Due to the several motivating factors, organizations started following the humanism theory. Most of the business analysts have agreed with the fact that the humanism approach has facilitated in bringing industrial revolutionary. Hence, it can be assessed that the adoption of the humanism approach would be the best possible solution for the particular organization, as it would provide them several beneficial aspects including the employee motivation, accumulating suggestion and feedbacks from the employees and staffs. Catao and Melo (2013) have argued that the Taylor sum approach has several beneficial aspects of employees, workers, and society. Hancock, Dyk and Jones (2012) have highlighted the fact that the particular approach facilitates the employees in utilizing the resources through scientific techniques. During the twentieth century, most of the organizations indeed avoided applying the Taylorism approach due to several drawbacks of the process. For instance, the Taylorism approach is only applicable for the simple organizations, as the dynamic and complex organizations would not be able to obtain the desired outcome by implementing the Taylorism approaches in the business. Moreover, the Taylorism approach focuses on the individual performance rather focusing on the group performance. Consequently, humanism approach is more applicable to the dynamic and complex organization. In this particular context, the organization called Sharp has been facing serious issue to accomplish the particular task in an effectual manner. Taylorism and humanism are both the human resource management approach that facilitates the organization in enhancing the business opportunities in an appropriate manner. Most of the business analysts have agreed with the fact that the Taylorism approach has some drawbacks that prevent the organization in executing the business in an effectual manner. The project manager needs to implement the humanism approach into the business, as it would facilitate them in conducting their desired project within the given timeframe.
During the mid-century, most of the organizations have been facing challenges in executing the organizational development due to the lack of team effort. According to Chapman (2012), group effort is needed in most businesses for conducting a particular task within a given timeframe. As a project manager, one should implement several strategic approaches to building a team so that it could produce positive outcomes in the business. According to Seck and Helton (2014), development of strong teamwork begins with the trust and clear communication. Without having the trust, the leaders would not be able to experience the beneficial aspects. For developing a team, a project manager needs to start the process by creating a clear goal or objectives. On the other hand, without establishing the frequent team meetings and other communicative approaches, the project manager would not be able to obtain the positive outcome from the business. Aside from this, the project manager needs to build trust and openness with the team members so that the suggestions and feedbacks could be accumulated in an effectual manner. The project manager is also responsible for providing the recognitions to the teams performing exceptionally well. Consequently, it would enhance the business opportunities in an effectual manner.
For experiencing the enhanced outcome from the business, most of the companies adopt the Tuckman model. With the involvement of this model, the organization could achieve the goals and objectives in the business. In 1965, Bruce Tuckman, a Psychology professor has developed a model highlighting the process of forming a group in the organization. Tuckman discussed that the group development is one of the prime factors for obtaining profitable outcomes from the business. With the engagement of this model into the business, teams could experience the high performances. This particular model consists of five stages including forming, storming, norming, and performing.
This particular stage happens when the team first assembles. During the initial meeting, team members share their information and experiences. It develops the first impression of the members. In this stage, the group leaders play an integral role, as he has to deliver the objectives and goal to the team members (Özer, Saçkes and Tuckman 2013). Moreover, the leaders are responsible for making the members understand their individual responsibilities to the group. On the other hand, the team leaders should have to provide detail information to the each group members the process of contributing to the group mission. Being a project manager, Lauren needs to form a team and provide the team members adequate information about the goal and objectives of the organization. Without having the knowledge and information about the mission, the employees would not be able to deliver their high quality performance in the business.
It is the most turbulent time in any group’s life cycle. In the storming stage, most of the people start pushing against the boundaries formed in the forming stage. Most of teams face challenges in this particular stage to execute certain tasks. According to Tuckman, confusion often starts into the team when there is a conflict between the team members regarding their working styles (Fransen et al. 2012). People may work in different forms for obtaining a particular goal and objectives. However, the team members become frustrated if different working style creates unforeseen problems. Sometimes, people could get confused due to the lack of work training. Without having enhanced training module, the employee may not understand their job role. Consequently, it could create challenges for the management to accomplish a particular goal or objectives within a given timeframe. In this context, the project manager of the company called Sharp printer needs to reduce the conflict among the team members by providing adequate information about the individual job role.
In the norming stage, the team members appreciate their colleague’s strengths. Moreover, the team members, in this stage respect their authority as leaders. In the norming stage, each employee has adequate information about their colleagues and they may socialize together. According to Tuckman, group member develop a stronger commitment to the team goal in the norming stage.
In the performing stage, group members have the adequate knowledge about their individual job role and they provide their high-class performance to the business for achieving organizational goals and objectives. During this phase, the group members reach their highest level of capability and motivation so that the organization could progress towards goals. On the other hand, the company’s leaders must develop the team spirit for enhancing the business opportunities.
It is the final phase of team developing process. This particular process happens, when the project is accomplished. Most of the groups employ this time for reflecting their accomplishments and understand the lessons learned during the execution of the process. On the other hand, the members can also utilize the adjourning phase for praising other members who have provided enhanced performance for the accomplishment of the next project.
Hence, it can be assessed that the five stages of group development facilitate the organizations in achieving the goals and objectives of the business. On the other hand, these stages indeed contribute in building the dynamic team in the business. by following the particular stages, the project manager could be able to improve the team effort in the business.
Figure 1: Tuckman Model
(Source: Fransen et al. 2012)
Beside Tuckman model, team performance curve is also an important aspect of the team developing process. According to the team performance curve, five levels of teamwork can be plotted on an X-Y axis. The five levels of the curve begin with the working group followed by the pseudo team, the potential team, the real team, and the high-performance team.
The working group:
The purpose of this group is to specify the roles and responsibilities of its members and delegate tasks. The members of the group primly interact with other colleagues to share the information and best practices and make decisions. The members of the groups take the responsibilities for obtaining their results.
In this stage, the team focuses on the collective performance. Moreover, it has the potentiality for the significant and incremental gain. However, the team members do not take the risks for becoming a potential team. They are not interested in developing a common purpose for setting performance goals. The Pseudo team resides at the bottom of the performance curve Özer, Saçkes and Tuckman (2013).
The potential team:
This type of team often experiences the significant and incremental gain in the performance. In this stage, the members of the team provide a high attention to achieve the high level of performance. However, the members are required to deliver high quality performance in the business to achieve the organizational objectives in an effectual manner.
The Real Team:
This team consists of a small number of members having a common goal and same approach to work. In this team, the members of the group have complementary skills. The performance of the real team is much higher than the potential team and working group.
The High-performance Team:
It has all the criteria of a real team. However, the members of the team are deeply committed to one other’s personal growth and development. The group members need to have a high very strong personal commitment to moving into the high-performance team from the real team.
Figure 2: Team Performance Curve
(Source: Özer, Saçkes and Tuckman 2013)
By analyzing the above discussion, it can be assessed that the team performance curve and the Tuckman model have high value for enhancing the team development process in the organization. The prime strength of the team development model is that the particular theoretical approach could provide a high level of guidance for the team development. However, the Tuckman model has some drawbacks, as it the groups in the organization may not be linear. The group may be cyclical. Most of the business analysts have argued that the model deals with the human behavior. Consequently, the group members often fail to follow the strict rules for achieving the particular goals and objectives of the business.
“Negotiation is the method used to reach an agreement by compromise, which is open to discussion or modification. Negotiation is the process of trying to get a better deal for the project that the project manager would get without negotiation.”
By analyzing the above subject, it can be assessed that the project manager obtains high facilitation by negotiating with the employees and other people of the management. Negotiation is the focused approach for solving the problem in an effectual manner. On the other hand, it limits the number of competitors involved in the disputes. By negotiating with other parties, the project manager would be able to enhance the business opportunities in an appropriate manner. However, it has some drawbacks. For instance, if the parties have diverse viewpoints, then the progress might not happen in the business. During the mid-century, most of the organizations have been focusing on negotiating with other companies for expanding the business into the large domestic areas as well as foreign market. Baarslag et al. (2014) have discussed that the negotiation is a continual process, and it does not indicate the individual event. There are several business negotiation strategies including planning, creative thinking, and close deal explicitly. For conducting an Effective negotiation, the project manager needs to plan the entire thing accordingly. Without having proper planning, the project manager would not be able to execute the process in an effective manner. Besides planning, creative thinking is required for negotiating a deal. By thinking outside of the box, the project manager would be able to provide the enhanced solutions to the business. Before negotiating a deal, the project manager must analyze different beneficial aspects of the business.
There are several negotiating strategies in business. However, the adoption of the negotiating strategy depends on the goals and objectives of the organization. Some of the important negotiating strategies include advanced preparation, friendship, and empathy, educating another party, advantage and walking away (Lopes, Ilco and Sousa 2013). Before negotiating a deal with a party, a project manager needs to accumulate adequate information about the situation. On the other hand, the project manager must gather a huge number of information about the party’s need and previous records in the business. Consequently, it would facilitate the project manager in enhancing the business opportunities. Sometimes, the organization forgets about focusing on identifying the issue of other’s business. For instance, if an organization is planning on buying another venture, it must analyze the reason for which the particular organization has been planning to sell their business to another party.
For negotiating in an appropriate manner, the project manager needs to have some negotiation skills including problem analysis, preparation, active listening, emotional control, verbal communication, collaboration, and teamwork, problem solving ability, decision-making ability, interpersonal skills and ethics, and reliability. According to Harder, Christensson and Söderbäck (2013), effective negotiation cannot happen without having the analytical skills. A successful negotiation indicates a process where two parties come together and hammer out a particular agreement accepted from both ends. Before entering into the negotiating process, the project manager needs to determine the goals and objectives of the business. Active listening is one of the integral requirements for being a good negotiator. Without having the active listening skills, the project manager would not be able to execute the particular task in an effective manner. Nowadays, most of the organizations have been focusing on the negotiation process for enhancing the business opportunities in an effective manner. For example, supermarket companies expand their business in the large domestic areas through the process of negotiation. Tesco, a supermarket giant in the UK market, is a tough negotiator. Tesco negotiates with the suppliers for receiving the goods in minimum value (Tesco.com. 2016). However, the suppliers could not be able to avoid negotiation due to the brand value of the company. Most of the suppliers try to make a healthy relationship with the particular organization to execute business for a long period. Besides Tesco, WalMart is also a tough negotiator, who negotiates with its suppliers in the market. Tesco believes that the prime strategy for the negotiation is that the organization needs to uphold good reputations and friendly behaviors with its suppliers, as these particular approaches indeed facilitate them in negotiating with the suppliers. On the other hand, the marketing plan of the organization is exceptionally well, as the management identifies the area where they should negotiate with other parties. Tesco has a goal of expanding the business to the large domestic areas as well as in the global platform. Hence, the management team of the organization has acknowledged the fact that their negotiating approach would facilitate them in enhancing the business opportunities in an effectual manner. Sometimes, the particular organization has to negotiate with the foreign government to reduce the political legislations from the business (Dastjerdi and Buyya 2012). Moreover, the particular process would facilitate them in expanding the business into the international market. According to the management of the organization, limited global presence is responsible for the limited market share. Consequently, the negotiating strategies would be the best possible solution for spreading the business into the large international market so that it could experience high market share. On the contrary, Tesco often fails to negotiate with other organizations in the foreign places. Hence, they face challenges in entering into some regions for conducting business. Therefore, it can be assessed that the negotiation is one of the major factors for enhancing the business opportunities within a short timeframe (Piche 2012). The particular section highlights the importance and strategies of negotiation. Moreover, the impact of negotiation on the business has been analyzed in this particular section.
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