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Project Management: Processing And Development

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Question:

Discuss about the Project Management for Processing and Development.

 

Answer:

Introduction

Project management is an activity which binds different activities and techniques together for successful completion of the task. It allows all the members to understand their roles and responsibilities. Project Management Methodologies can play an important role in the success of the project in desired time and budget. It becomes difficult to control all the activities without the use of methodologies (Steyn, Dekker and Visser, 2016). The financial and human resources have to be used efficiently. The most commonly used project methodologies include Agile, Waterfall, PRINCE2, Scrum, Six Sigma and NPI (New Product Introduction). The main aim of the project is to understand high level project management in engineering and construction domain. The case study of Brisbane Airport’s New Runway has been analyzed with the help of PRINCE2 and Waterfall methodology. 

Main Body

Project management involves planning, processing, development, risk management and implementation of various activities. Lack of planning and direction can lead to failure of the project (Martinelli and Milosevic, 2016). To avoid such issues many companies have adopted project methodologies which act as a guide to them. It provides them with step by step process which helps them to complete all the activities on time. 

The Brisbane airport authority has carried out intensive research to understand the complexities, quality standards, budgets and scheduling process. Brisbane’s Airport project is one of the biggest aviation projects. It involves investment of $1.35 billion which will improve tourism facilities in Brisbane (Guth and Marsh, 2016). The entire project will take six years for completion beginning from 2014 till 2020. It will increase the capacity of the airport which will be able to hold 360,000 flights as compared to 227,000 in 2014. It is a complex project which will involve different activities and phases which are integrated. This project is expected to create more than 2700 jobs. Apart from this, there are three main phases of construction which includes site preparations, reclamation and dredging and pavement and airfield construction (Turner, 2016). The first stage will include drainage works, construction of roads, cross runway system and clearing system. The second stage will consist of piling of sand on the site. The final stage will involve activities such as pavement construction, airfield development and commencing the operations. Initial two stages have been completed by the management and the final stage will be completed between 2017 and 2020. But it is essential for the project manager to employ project management methodologies for successful completion of the work. Theses methodologies can increase the probability of the success of the project by providing a schedule, layout and setting priorities for different activities (Gollenia, 2016). It will not only help them to manage their resources efficiently but it will also allow them to effectively integrate all the activities and processes related to the Brisbane’s runway construction. 

 

Many large and complex projects fail due to lack of collaboration and failure to understand responsibilities. These situations can be avoided by Brisbane airport by adopting project management methodologies (Heagney, 2016). It provides a series for different processes which assists workers and managers. The main objective of the methodologies is to accomplish the task faster and to solve problems arising during the process. Brisbane Airport can use it to specify their activities and in planning the time at which it has to be completed. At present, the management is finding it difficult to collateral and integrate all the activities together. Apart from this, the complexities and technicalities of the project have made it more difficult for them. PRINCE2 and Agile method outlines the tasks and other subsequent tasks (Vijayasarathy and Butler, 2016). It allows the manager to understand and develop a system because each activity relies on the previous task. They can also use project management strategies to avoid any uncertainties or unexpected events. The biggest advantage of project methodologies is that it defines the scope, recourse allocation, time, budget and other deliverables which can be communicated to all the members (Morley 2016). Furthermore, the sequences of all the activities have to be decided in advance. Methodologies consider the quality as well as efficiency of the project which increases the chances of success. Moreover, the strategic objective provides benefits in keeping a check and monitoring the progress of the project. The feedback from the workers is taken which has positive impacts of the team members.

Brisbane airport is a large project which involves many complex processes. It will be beneficial for the project manager to adopt PRINCE2 in their strategy. The main advantage of this methodology is that it can be tailored according to the need of the organisation. It is completely based on principles and themes (Alotaibi and Mafimisebi, 2016). It reduces the impact of decision making, staff movement and stakeholder management. The seven themes of PRINCE2 include business, organisation, quality, plan, risk, change and progress. On the other hand, its principles include business justification, learning from experience, defining roles, stages management process, management by exception, product focus and changing the project environment. It will allow the project manager to create a blueprint and a model for the runway project (Martinelli and Milosevic, 2016). They have already decided their processes which include site preparations, reclamation and dredging and pavement and airfield construction. But they have not decided the sequences and activities related to it. PRINCE 2 can help them to set up their processes with the help of seven processes which includes starting the project, initiating, directing, controlling, managing delivery, development of stage boundary and completion of the project (Konstantinou and Müller, 2016). Brisbane Airport project can use these seven processes for improving the success of the runway project. In the first stage, the project manager has to appoint a team and planning is done. The main activities which are included in the stage are designing, preparing outline, creating a project brief, selecting the approach and development of plan for the next stages. Initiation stage involves creating briefs and documents for managing all the activities. Apart from this, all the information is put in front of the board so that they gain understanding about it. It helps in coordinating activities as well as in stakeholder’s management (Srivannaboon and Munkongsujarit, 2016). All the essentials such as quality, controls, assembling and risk management is done at this stage. Brisbane airport project should have this stage in their process because it gives clarity in the direction and monitoring can be done easily with the help of this. Furthermore, in involves senior management who takes care of many externals activities (Chin, 2004). For example, Heathrow Terminal project failed because the senior management was not actively involved in it. It is essential for Brisbane airport authority to consider this aspect. It can be controlled with the help of PRINCE 2 project methodology. The next stage consists of authorization, management by exceptions, ad hoc development and direction and project closures information. It will allow Brisbane airport to gather all the details and prepare schedules accordingly (Kononenko, Aghaee and Lutsenko, 2016). Construction of runway requires series of activities which have to be coordinated together due to high level of interdependency. The controlling stage involves setting controls for assessing the progress and performance of the project. Brisbane project has not developed appropriate methods for the monitoring of the progress. But PRINCE 2 method suggests development of a control plan and action plans related to it. It will ensure the completion of the project without compromising with the quality. Apart from this, it will provide an opportunity to the employees so that they can test new systems and technologies. This will give them an extra time to remove all the defects from the system (Martens and Carvalho, 2016). Many projects fail to allocate sufficient time for testing and removing errors which results in failure of the project. The nest stage of PRINCE2 is management of deliverables which aims to develop link between project manager and team members. Brisbane airport can increase the chances of their project success by adopting this stage. It will provide all the details to the team members such as schedules, time constraint, budget, expected efforts, work package, quality standards required etc. This is very important and it has to be communicated to all the employees. It boosts the morale of the workers and they become aware about what is expected from them and what they have to do achieve. Risk management is done after his stage and it consists of preparation of risk register, action palms, reporting procedures and controls (Alvarez-Dionisi, Turner and Mittra, 2016). It will allow them to remove all the uncertainties from the project. They can prepare themselves for any unexpected event which may affect the performance of the project. There can be many events such as technical failure, delay in construction, lack of support from workers, change in design due to stakeholder’s pressure etc. All these things are considered by PRINCE 2 method and necessary action plans are also created to reduce the impacts of such activities (Papke-Shields and Boyer-Wright, 2017). The final stage involves follow up actions and evaluation of the project. PRINCE 2 has all the principles which are required for completing the project on time and in budget. Brisbane carport can customize it according to their requirements which will ensure their success. The main problem in the project is complexities and technicalities. It has put pressure on the time schedules which cannot be extended by the project manager. It is essential for them to adopt a project management methodology which will help them in the entire process (Kononenko, Aghaee and Lutsenko, 2016). 

Brisbane airport can also adopt Waterfall methodology in their project. It is a sequential process which has downward similar to a waterfall (Vijayasarathy and Butler, 2016). The main stages of this methodology includes conception stage, initiation, analyzing, creating designs, initiating the construction, control and testing, implanting or maintenance. Waterfall is widely used methodology in construction projects. Brisbane airports can obtain clear directions and milestones for their runway project. It consists of deliverables, due dates, expectation and quality standards expected by the client. Many authors suggest this methodology where sequential tasks are involved (Srivannaboon and Munkongsujarit, 2016). Waterfall builds a systematic process because it is not possible to create a bathroom without developing its foundation. This strategy focuses on finding out requirements of the entire project before the designing phase (Konstantinou and Müller, 2016). It will allow Brisbane airport to go through all the essentials of the project. The team can focus on all the details without even overlooking any one of them. It will also reduce the chances of compatibility issues which may arise during the implementation stage of the project. It is a traditional method but it will allow the management to improve the performance of their runway project.

It will be beneficial for the Brisbane airport to adopt PRINCE 2 methodology in their runway project. Traditional or Waterfall project will affect their limited time constraints and schedules. So, it is important for them to understand the needs and requirements of their project (Steyn, Dekker and Visser, 2016). They have to make changes in their methodologies according to it. They will be able to prepare themselves in a better way by the use of various principles, themes and processes of PRINCE 2.

Conclusion

It can be concluded from the above that project management becomes very effective with the help of methodologies such as Agile, PRINCE2, waterfall etc. It allows project manager to use the resources efficient and to its full capacity. It reduces ambiguities and complexities in the entire process. Project methodologies have become necessary due to large scale projects and stiff time schedules. Project managers have to integrate many activities which are interrelated to each other. Lack of planning and direction can lead to failure of the project. To avoid such issues Brisbane Airport should adopt project methodologies which will help them to improve their performance. It will provide them with step by step guide which helps them to complete all the activities in the desired time.

 

References

Alotaibi, A.B. and Mafimisebi, O.P., 2016. Project Management Practice: Redefining Theoretical Challenges in the 21st Century. Project Management, 7(1).

Alvarez-Dionisi, L.E., Turner, R. and Mittra, M., 2016. Global project management trends. International Journal of Information Technology Project Management (IJITPM), 7(3), pp.54-73.

Chin, G., 2004. Agile project management. AMACOM, New York

Gollenia, L.A., 2016. Business Transformation Management Methodology. Routledge.

Guth, D.W. and Marsh, C., 2016. Public relations: A values-driven approach. Pearson.

Heagney, J., 2016. Fundamentals of project management. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.

Kononenko, I., Aghaee, A. and Lutsenko, S., 2016. Application of the project management methodology synthesis method with fuzzy input data. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 2(3 (80)), pp.32-39.

Konstantinou, E. and Müller, R., 2016. The role of philosophy in project management. Project Management Journal, 47(3), pp.3-11

Martens, M.L. and Carvalho, M.M., 2016. The challenge of introducing sustainability into project management function: multiple-case studies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 117, pp.29-40.

Martinelli, R.J. and Milosevic, D.Z., 2016. Project management toolbox: tools and techniques for the practicing project manager. John Wiley & Sons.

Martinelli, R.J. and Milosevic, D.Z., 2016. Project management toolbox: tools and techniques for the practicing project manager. John Wiley & Sons.

Morley, C., 2016. Management d'un projet système d'Information-8e éd.: Principes, techniques, mise en oeuvre et outils. Dunod.

Papke-Shields, K.E. and Boyer-Wright, K.M., 2017. Strategic planning characteristics applied to project management. International Journal of Project Management, 35(2), pp.169-179.

Srivannaboon, S. and Munkongsujarit, S., 2016, September. Project management and project portfolio management in open innovation: Literature review. In Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), 2016 Portland International Conference on (pp. 2002-2007). IEEE.

Steyn, H., Dekker, A.H., Kuschke, B., Van Eck, B.P.S. and Visser, K., 2016. Project management: A multi-disciplinary approach.

Turner, R., 2016. Gower handbook of project management. Routledge.

Vijayasarathy, L.R. and Butler, C.W., 2016. Choice of Software Development Methodologies: Do Organizational, Project, and Team Characteristics Matter?. IEEE Software, 33(5), pp.86-94.

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