Dementia is a condition that is connected to a number of disease and is featured by the impairment of brain functions like memory, understanding and reasoning. Early symptoms include difficulty in remembering and later it the symptoms may be worse like difficulty in performing day to day activities. The major cause of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease. The second cause of dementia is Vascular dementia and the other causes are front temporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies (Ratnavalli E et al, 2002). For the Australians Dementia is a major health crisis. As estimated 222,100 people in Australia suffered from it in 2011 and this is to increase to 464,000 by 2031. Few people get the support from the family and friends and the others depend on support from the organizations or the paid support. The interventions provide improvement in disabilities and functioning but do not suppress of the disease. In the later paragraphs the frequency, causes, the prevalence, the modifiable and non modifiable risk factors, the services used up by the patients, the mortality rates are given. All these things are explained in detail.
It is increasing with age and its an inevitable part of ageing and affect young people also. It is increasing due to population ageing and the growth in population. It affects few people who are under 65 that is 1 in 4 and who are 85 years of age. The prevalence in female is far more than males, especially in their old age. This id due to the long life of males and the prove that the dementia is a old age disease probably. The studies show that the rate of dementia is higher than given in the data collected. The AIHW is coming up with new methods that gives more accuracy to the prevalence results and the projection. In studies it has been seen the victims of Dementia are higher in the Indigenous Australians. In a study of Kimberley region of the Northern Territory, the rate of Dementia was 12% in the Aboriginal peoples who are 45 years of age or more than that. Here the Dementia is more common in males than females. The reason behind this is the low social and health profiles among these Aboriginal Australians (Seeher et al. 2011).
Many conditions prevails in humans that can cause Dementia. Of them the most common are explained below:
The frequency of occurrence of dementia is a major concern. The risk factors are being researched out to stop the frequency of occurrence. Risk factors are the determinants to tell about the basic causes of the dementia (Sager et al, 2006). The risk factors are of two categories the modifiable and the non modifiable. The non-modifiable risk factors for dementia are explained below:
The modifiable risk factors for dementia are explained below:The brain factors that can be controlled are
The body factors that can be controlled are:
The heart factors that can be controlled are:
Prevention of dementia is hard as the cause is still unknown. Till now no cure of dementia is known. But adapting lifestyle and medication changes can decrease the risks of dementia. The prevention is based upon the early detection and the reducing of reoccurrence and the symptoms. The plan here focuses on the community which consists of young adults who can follow the following prevention steps and decrease the disease to a much larger extent. The three types of prevention methods that should be followed at each level by these young adults are as follows:
Primary prevention: The disease can be prevented in the general population by encouraging community spread measures like the good nutritional status, physical fitness, immunization and keeping the environment safe (Goldman L, et al, 2014). The primary prevention methods help maintain good health and reduces the occurrence of the diseases. These method includes the basic lifestyle changes that ensure healthy brain functioning and reducing the risks associated with the occurrence of the disease. It also includes including a diet which is rich in nutrition and helps the brain to function properly. It ca
Secondary prevention: It is when the detection is made at the early stage of the disease and before the symptoms occurs. There is prompt and effective intervention done to prevent disease progression (Thorgrimsen et al, 2003). The onset conditions of the disease are to be prevented.
Tertiary prevention: The prevention or the minimizing the complications or the disabilities developed with the disease. These tertiary preventive measures are known to be the part of the medical treatment and the management of the condition. It includes providing medication and taking up therapies to reduce the effectiveness and symptoms of the dementia.
For this prevention plan the group which is targeted is the young age form 30 to 40 years whose lifestyle, dietary patterns, early onset and then minimizing the complications if already prevailed can decrease the prevalence to a much larger extent.
The Dementia patients requires lot of aged care and the health service that consists of primary health care, community aged care, residential care and the hospital care. According to a in 2008 study the care packages that were taken up by the patient comprises of following:
The other services which was used up includes the health care service, home and the community care, Community nursing service, Aged care services. The services taken up by the Aboriginal Australians is very less. However if the services are taken up by them the information gathered about it is very less. The services which the Aboriginal used included support from community, diagnostics, management and the residential care of the old people.
On time diagnosis is must in order to have accurate care and medication. In reality there is no cure for it but the interventions that improves the condition are though available. The medication falls in two categories. These are on drugs or non drugs.
Dementia is the major and the leading cause of mortality among the Australians. From the year 1997 to 2009 the number of people who died from dementia is increasing steadily form 3400 to 8700 that is from 21 to 34 deaths in a population of 100000. In the year 2009 dementia became the third largest cause of death among the Australians. However, it is to keep in mind that the part of increment occurred due to changes in coding instructions in ICD-10 and the Veterans’ Entitlements Act 1986 and Military Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2004.
It can be seen Dementia is a disease of loneliness and is in relation to many other disease and like Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia prevalence can be stopped if it is prevented in early stages and a suitable treatment along with support, emotional care from the community, friends, family and other significant ones. The prevention plan that is meant for specific communities and specific age groups should be followed by every individual seriously so as to reduce the prevalence of the disease. The services can also be used up by the ones who are already the sufferers of the disease.
Summing up, it can be said that Dementia is a life threatening condition for the human beings that solely occurs due to loneliness and with age. Dementia occurs mostly in aged people as they are the one who are most isolated and free from any regular activities like work. Till now in spite of so many researches occurring everywhere in the world no cure has been found out to stop the progression or to completely abolish the disease. The only cure is to gain support from family and friends. The drug and non drug interventions though have been found out that improves the functions and improves psychological and behavioral features. The prevalence of it is constantly increasing in Australia. The risk factors along with the prevention methods should be taken in to account so as to control the spread and improve the conditions of the patients of Dementia. Many of the researches has been performed in past and many are still performed to find out the evidences and the prevalence rate. But still a lot has to be done the research that could find a cure and should halt the progression is still to be found.
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