Neurofeedback was formerly known as electroenc ephalographic (EEG) biofeedback and has been regarded as one of the forms of Neurotherapy (Hesam?Shariati et al., 2022). In recent years, the application of neurofeedback has been associated with arousal in the specific brain areas at the frontal brain and can associate with increased production of theta waves and deficit in the beta waves (Hima et al., 2022). The application of neurofeedback has also been studied in the context of ADHD individuals. The neurofeedback training has helped in reducing the hyperactive or impulsive symptoms as well as the inattentive symptoms in the individuals making it (Barth et al., 2021). This approach has been developed as it can help in the harmonization of brain waves without pharmacological interventions. However, most of the studies that have been conducted and are associated with the assessment of interventions such as neurofeedback in individuals with ADHD have been focused on male participants (Panisch et al., 2020). According to the recent findings, it has been indicated that many women may not be diagnosed with ADHD as the classical approaches of diagnosing and understanding ADHD have been outdated and have been based on the initial studies that included only the male participants (London & Landes, 2021). This proposal thus aims to provide an outline for conducting a systematic study that is based on understanding the impact of neurofeedback as an intervention for improving the symptoms associated with ADHD in women in the age group of 25-30 years. This document will summarise a proposal of a study and succinctly summarise its methodologies, measures, and ethical considerations for the compilation of the proposed study.
For this biopsychological study, a primary research design will be used. A clinical trial will be used for the compilation of this study. A clinical trial is a research type in which the effectiveness of an intervention is studied based on the assessment between two research groups (Powell et al., 2021). This research method has been proposed for conducting this study as it will help in elucidating the impact of neurofeedback as an intervention for improving the symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity in the individuals identified with ADHD in comparison to the control group, on which the intervention will not be applied.
Ethical considerations are an essential component of conducting research and ensure that the primary principles of human research, such as autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice, are ensured in the study (Resnik, 2018). In the proposed study, informed consent will be collected from all the participants of the research with a clear and coherent explanation of the benefits and risks associated with participation in the study. The participants will be free to leave the study in between if they wish to abstain from continuing the study.
The selection of participants in this study will be based on purposive sampling. Purposive sampling is a non-probabilistic method for the collection of samples in the study (Denieffe, 2020). Since this study is based on a focussed group of sub-population, thus this method for participant selection will be suitable for this study (Campbell et al., 2020). The participants will be recruited online and will be shortlisted based on the selection criteria. It will be mandated that all the participants that are included in the study are women and in the age group of 25-30 years. Individuals from all races, ethnicities and other social groups will be included in the study.
The primary bio-psychological measure that will be used in the study will be the application of neurofeedback. In the neurofeedback session, the individuals in the study will be asked to sit in the chair with the electrode sensors attached. The sensors will be used to assess the electrical signals that are produced in the brain (Enriquez-Geppert et al., 2019).
In addition, the brain activity of the participants will be assessed using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. This technique serves as a powerful tool and uses magnetic fields to provide an assessment of pulsations in the body of the patient. This can help in creating an image based on staining of the brain of the individuals (Geethanath & Vaughan Jr, 2019).
The ADHD rating scale will be used in addition as a measure for developing the baseline and assessment of the individual organizations. The scale has an eighteen item question that can help in the identification of different signs and severity of the symptoms. The scoring on the scale is based on a four-point scale, with a score of 0 indicating no incidence of ADHD and a score of 4 indicating severe incidence (Potts et al., 2021).
The assessment of ADHD is developed as a multi-step process that involves clinical examination, interview, observations in the behaviour and compilation of the rating scales. A systematic study will be performed in this research that will be completed in the study in which baseline observations and data collection will be used for comparison against the observations of data after application of the intervention. The following procedure will be followed for conducting the research:
- The participants of the study will be categorized, and systematic analysis of their brain function will be done by observations of behaviour and by conducting Magnetic Resonance Imaging as well as the ADHD rating scale, that is, using the ADHD RS IV using the DSM IV.
- Once the initial observations and data are collected, the participants will be subjected to intervention, that is, neurofeedback, for twenty minutes in forty sessions.
- The observations and the Magnetic Resonance Imaging data will be collected again and analyzed.
- A comparative analysis of the initial observations and the observations after the application of the intervention will be used to assess the efficiency of the intervention and its implications.
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