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PSY216 Psychology Of Ageing 2

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  • Course Code: PSY216
  • University: Charles Sturt University
  • Country: Australia

Questions:

1. a) According to Kirkwood and Austad, why is it better for humans to have babies earlier inlife?
b) Is ageing related to the capacity for sexual (as opposed to asexual) reproduction? Provide one example to support your response to Part
  1. According to Kirkwood and Austad, which of the following is evidence for life- history tradeoffs?
    a. Delaying reproduction reduces longevity,
    b. Delaying reproduction increases longevity?
  2. According to Kirkwood and Austad, which of the following statements captures ageing from an evolutionary perspective:

    a.Ageing is caused by mutations in a specificgene
    b.Ageing is caused by an accumulation of mutations in germcells
    c.Ageing is caused by an accumulation of mutations in somaticcells
    d.Ageing occurs because of the operation of natural
  3. Read the article by De Grey and answer the following: Is ageing a disease?
  4. If there are no “non-ageing animals” currently, does it make sense to try and find a cure for age?
 

Answer:

1 a).  During the early stages of human development, senescence which is a condition that threatens reproduction that needs to get checked. Fecundity and a stable survival rate isalso present during this age. The disposable soma theory suggests that there is a drastic reduction of reproduction at later stages hence natural selection favors early reproduction.

b).  Yes, aging is directly related to sexual reproduction in humans.  According to the genetic theory, there is antagonistic pleiotropy which might become a negative correlation in genes. The condition leads to high early fecundity and lower later survival probabilities (Kowald & Kirkwood, 2015). Thus, selection favors those in the early reproduction than those in later years. For instance, the early reproduction does not produce the same quality of offspring as compared to later reproduction.
 
2 b ). Delaying reproduction increases longevity.

Longevity is positively correlated with reproduction age and hence the fecundity, a related trait.  History tradeoffs in a natural population get associated with phenotypic correlations.  There is a more significant probability for post-reproduction survival hence suppression of senescence ( Vaiserman,  Lushchak, & Koliada, 2016).

3. Agingis caused by an accumulation of mutations in somatic cells.

4. Aging is not a mystery as De Grey says. It is insteada condition and a disease to some extent. The reason is that the research being undertaken places aging as a condition that requires treatment in order to counter (Gems, 2015).  Comprehensive studies with broad scopes of sufficient details reveal the growing extent to which anti-aging efforts have gone. Although high costs might have to get incurred for the activities that involve anti-aging treatments such as tissue repair, the researcher thinks that the cost is worth all the efforts (Vijg & De Grey, 2014).
 
5. Although there are no “non-aginganimals” currently, there is every reason to remain optimistic about the efforts that have to get applied in search of a cure for age. Aspects such as genetic mutations and the resulting conditions such as senescence need to get addressed through studies with clear lines of effects regarding reproduction and other related elements of human life.

 

References

Gems, D. (2015). The aging-disease false dichotomy: understanding senescence as pathology. Frontiers in Genetics, 6, 212.

Kowald, A., & Kirkwood, T. B. (2015). Evolutionary significance of aging in the wild. Experimental Gerontology, 71, 89-94.

Vaiserman, A. M., Lushchak, V., & Koliada, A. K. (2016). Anti-aging pharmacology: promises and pitfalls. Aging research reviews, 31, 9-35.

Vijg, J., & De Grey, A. D. (2014). Innovating aging: promises and pitfalls on the road to life extension. Gerontology, 60(4), 373-380.

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