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PSYC1010 Psychology Introduction 1

tag 0 Download 0 Pages / 0 Words tag 18-06-2022

Answer:

Case Study Report

This report based on an ASD assessment done by Sam Brown. He was born on 25th January 2011. This report provides information gotten from assessments on Mullen Scales of Early Learning, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and Autism Diagnostic Interview.

ASD refers to a group of disorders like autism, Asperger's syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder. However, autism is more common among them. These disorders are considered developmental because they appear during early years of children's development.  Difficulties experienced by children with this disorder are grouped into three categories; verbal and non-verbal communication, social awareness and interaction, and activities and interest. This report describes Sam Brown's results in all the categories based on Mullen Scales of Early Learning, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and Autism Diagnostic Interview.

Overview of Sam Brown's current situation

Sam Brown is cheerful and pays good attention to people communicating with him. This is considered to be some of his strengths.  However, it was noted both by his parents and the specialist that he exhibited some delay in his language and communication. Similarly, he showed some repetitiveness in his behavior. His parents addressed concerns for his health being that older brother; Joshua is eight years and was diagnosed with Asperger's Disorder. From a medical perspective, this puts Sam Brown at risk of developing an ASD. Delay in communication and repetitiveness in behavior are among early signs of ASD in children (Barbaro, 2010). Other includes; failures to respond to social behaviours like facial expressions and smiles and lack of communication through waving or pointing.

Mullen Scales of Early Learning Assessment

This assessment measured the cognitive function of Sam Brown. It was used to assess his abilities in visuals, linguistic and motor domains. Before the test, it was established that he had neither uncorrected vision problem nor uncorrected hearing problem. Also, he had no physical characteristics that may have affected the results of this test. Lastly, he was not under any medication. Therefore, the results provided are free from any physical or physiological interference. The scores were issued in 5 categories: gross motor, visual reception, fine motor, receptive and expressive language.  This section provides observation from the assessment and scores awarded to the patient.

Regarding raw score, Sam Brown had: 23 points in Gross motor, 25 points in visual reception, 23 points in fine motor, and 21 points in receptive language and 18 points in expressive language. On the T-Scale Profile, he attained: 23 points in gross motor, 34 in visual reception, 27 in fine motor, 31 in receptive language and 30 in expressive language.

The results show that Sam Brown has shown a significant delay in the gross and fine motor. His visual reception, receptive language, and expressive language are impressing based on his age (Pellicano, 2010). The delay in gross motor and fine motor imply that he may suffer from ASD.

Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule

This is a semi-structured assessment of communication, social interaction, and plays for children suspected to be having ASD. This protocol contained social interaction tasks with Sam Brown. The child displayed the following:

Sam Brown can make direct eye contact with the person communicating with him. However, he is not able to respond to calls to point at an item. He is not able to communicate with his parents socially except for when he is asking for something. He is not able to wave ‘bye bye' to a person leaving a room. Lastly, he does not know how to pretend to be playing.

The patient is 24 months old. According to the growth and development chart, he should be able to engage in social interactions with others (Barbaro, 2009). He should also be capable of playing and knowing to wave goodbye when someone is leaving the room. Lacks of the above factors indicate abnormalities in the growth and development of Sam Brown. Therefore, there are strong reasons to conclude that the child may be suffering from ASDs.

Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised

This assessment was carried on 24th of August, 2013. It was done to measure the client ‘response to nonverbal behaviours in social interaction, shared enjoyment, socio-emotional reciprocity, peer relationships, abnormalities in communication, patterns of behavior and abnormality in behavior. Module 1 of the assessment was used because the subject used little phrase speech. Sam Brown's parents participated in this assessment. After the interview was completed, I assigned the following scores based on my evaluation of the caregivers' response. He scored 7 points in social interaction, 6 point in non-verbal communication, 3 points in repetitive behavior and 3 points in abnormality in behavior.

The patient could make a good and clear eye contact. He can make only single phrases. When faced with a smile, he smiles back. He is shy, mostly with strangers, but with time, he warms up and become friendly. Also, he prefers to share his food with others but not toys. Regarding abnormalities in communication, Sam Brown nod and shakes his head inconsistently and does not always use gesture to show interest. He loves to engage in songs plays and usually invite other to play with him. However, the parents noted that he prefers to have his things in particular places. If he does not find them there, he gets upset. In repetitive behavior, Sam Brown occasionally lines up his toys and like feeling the texture of the house carpets.

The results do not suggest any abnormality in behavior at this age (Zwaigenbaum et al., 2015). However, his inability to construct phrases is worrying because children should be able to make repetitive phrases at this point of growth (Jeffrey, 2013).

In conclusion, this report has provided results gotten from the assessment of Sam Brown who has been experiencing difficulties in communication skills, both verbal and non-verbal. He also had repetitive behaviours that gave a strong suggestion that he may be having ASD (Young, 2013). Being that his older brother suffers from disorders related to ASD, Sam Brown is at high risk of developing the disease (Lindley, 2013). Therefore, this report concludes that Sam Brown is suffering from ASD and needs treatment as soon as possible to restore his health and enable normal growth and development.

References

Barbaro, J. & Dissanayake, C. (2010). Prospective identification of Autism Spectrum

Disorders in infancy and toddlerhood using developmental surveillance: The Social Attention and Communication Study. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Paediatrics, 31, 376-385.

Barbaro, J. & Dissanayake, C. (2013). Early markers of autism spectrum disorders in infants and toddlers prospectively identified in the Social Attention and Communication Study. Autism, 17, 64-86.

Barbaro, J. & Dissanayake, C. (2009). Autism Spectrum Disorders in infancy and toddlerhood: A review of the evidence on early signs, early identification, and early diagnosis. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Paediatrics, 30, 447-459.

Jeffrey, T.-S. (2013). Early chilhood Development: A multicultural perspective. New York: PIE.

Lindley, J. (2013, July 2). The Texas Early Childhood program Standard Comparison Tool. Retrieved September 18, 2016, from http://www.thssco.uth.tmc.edu

Pellicano, E. (2010). Individual differences in executive function and central coherence predict developmental changes in Theory of Mind in autism. Developmental Psychology, 46, 530-544

Young, R. (2013). The Diagnostic Process. In B. O’Reilly & K. Wicks (Eds.). The Australian Autism Handbook (pp. 18-34). Edgecliff, NSW: Jane Curry Publishing.

Zwaigenbaum, L., Bauman, M.L., Stone, W.L., Yirmiya, N., Estes, A., et al (2015). Early identification of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Recommendations for practice and research. Pediatrics, 136, S10-S40.

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