The term ‘leadership’ is the combination of responsibilities, patience, positivity and motivation. It is a skill to guide the organization towards the right direction. They motivate the employees to achieve the goal and contribute in establishing a bright future for the company. Although leaders play a crucial role in every sector, the following article studies about leadership in health and social care. The requirement of a great leader in health and social care organization is always high (Crombie and Garland, 2016). The article emphasizes the leadership structure of National Health Service (NHS), UK.NHS is health and social care organization that founded in 1948. The objective of NHS is to provide good health to everyone. NHS serves more than 1 million patients every 36 hours in England (Bakker 2013).
The essay provides an overview about transactional leadership theory and the strengths and weaknesses of that theory in NHS. Providing and organizing good-quality care takes hard emotional labor. In a proficient service organization, such as NHS there is a comprehensible receptiveness towards collective forms of leadership. The essay also illustrates that the task of a leader is to ensure alignment, direction and commitment within organizations and teams. The central component of most leadership and leadership framework is the concept of stating the direction for organizations and sub-units. The importance of leadership behavior is also highlighted in the essay that acts as guidance for leadership model.
The major challenge that is facing all the organizations of NHS is to nurture cultures that make sure the delivery of incessantly improving high quality as well as considerate healthcare. Leadership is considered as the most leading factor that helps o shape culture of an organization. Effective leaders in NHS highlights continually, that high quality and considerate care is the highest priority. According to NHS, the voice of patients is consistently heard at each level. Board leadership is considered as the most effectual when boards ratify the vision as well as values of the organization through what they attend to. On the other hand, national level leadership plays a key role that influences the culture of the organizations of NHS. Several reports have called for the various bodies that make available national leadership to enhance an individual integrated approach (Parris et al. 2016).
Transactional leadership is termed as managerial leadership that mostly focuses on supervision, performance as well as organization. This type of leadership is mostly effectual in crisis as well as emergency circumstances. Transactional Theory focuses on the transaction between the leaders and their followers. It has been discussed as positive and beneficial relation for both the leaders and followers. The theory has stated, leaders must appreciate their followers and give reward for accomplishing the tasks successfully provided by the leaders. In other words, the theory has discussed about the efficient leaders who provide healthy and enthusiastic atmosphere to their employees, this type of atmosphere enhance the growth of the organization (Stringfellow et al., 2015). Transactional theory is simple and easy to execute for any administrator. It has provided a positive overview about leadership. This theory has depicted a clear picture about the relation between leader and follower and the objective of the leaders is transparent for their subordinates. It has stated about the techniques that are beneficial for the whole organization. However, it can be stated this theory assumes that every person will be inspired by reward and criticism. It has predicted every people is rational. This procedure can be used to exploit the employees. This type of leadership is unable to bring the best out of the employee and long run of this procedure can cause a permanent damage to the organization (Martin et al. 2015).
With the help of the transactional leadership theory, the employees of NHS were motivated as the theory helped them to become more productive as well as effectual. The incentive, firstly anticipates the workers to work hard to meet deadlines as well as exceed hard work quota. As a result, hundreds of employees in NHS works hard and maintain their duty hours in hospitals to make sure that the patients are safe. The nursing service in the district operates 24/7 in order to help the defenseless individuals in South Wales. The transactional leadership technique also acts as the reminder to a member of the workforce that organization keeps an eye on them. The leadership style also leads to a clear and concise structure and as a result, the workers are informed beforehand about the expectation of the Company. Engagement of employees in the NHS continued to remain steady over the past few years. This helps the employees to remain aware about the rewards they are likely to get because of their hard work (McLean 2015). A transactional leadership is efficient when it comes to augment in production and cutting down expenses. The organization makes the use of staff contracts as well as tackling sickness absence in order to augment productivity. The theory indicates that NHS requires to focus mostly on clinical decision-making that will in turn lead to an opportunity to improve productivity. A noteworthy proportion of NHS leaders have a clinical background. This leadership style has short-term goals that make it trouble-free for workers to get things done.
However, several weaknesses are associated with transactional theory and the negative impact it had on NHS. This leadership style led to unyielding rules and guidelines. The employees require to abide by the guidelines irrespective of the incentive that they will receive. A transactional leader does not accept any complaints or disobedience of any sort. As a result, the leaders in NHS find it hard to adjust to certain circumstances. The transactional leadership theory also does not encourage creativity due to its rigid nature. Several analyses have illustrated the prospects to enhance productivity in the NHS, however; the focus changes to accomplishment and execution (Owens 2015). The transactional leaders mostly find it difficult to make changes due to the short-term objectives and structured aims. This in turn is likely to affect the workers, as they are not provided with the opportunities to become leaders but simply cohorts. Due to this leadership style, managers of NHS do not put the feelings of workers in deliberation. Under this leadership structure, the workers are blamed if anything in the workplace goes wrong. As a result, critics find this to be the cause for discontent as well as discontent among the workers. Hence, there are too few NHS employees to desire to take on the toughest roles of leadership (Mullins and Christy 2016).
A recent review by Marks and Spencer executive chairperson Lord Rose, the leadership style of NHS has been criticized and has been pinpointed as one of the key difficulties that is facing the health service. NHS is also committed to a wide range of changes however; the organization does not have adequate management as well as leadership aptitude to deliver the changes. The organization had also been facing issues related to financial pressures, allocation methods as well as service targets due to transactional style of leadership. While many managers undeniably wanted to act for the larger good of their domestic NHS as a whole, there were abundant pressures to act in a more inward-looking way (Pemberton 2015).
A new leadership model requires to incorporated that will be implemented in three ways. It is required to make available and rationalize a clear logic of rationale and involvement. It is imperative to focus unambiguously on the requirements and expertise of service users, continually strengthening an inspirational vision of the mission and communal contribution of the organization. A broader environment such as policy framework requires to be interpreted. It is imperative to build a commitment team and a constructive emotional tone or climate that coherent both workers and service users (Hook 2007). The new leadership model should be designed in such a manner that it should encourage involvement of high staff and facilitate independence within a framework of values and objectives focused on meeting customer requirements. The new leadership model should also administer and enhance performance rather than simply reporting it with openness to several viewpoints. Unlike transactional theory, the new leadership model should be designed in such a way that the leaders listen to employees and act in response to their voice. It should also validate and engross with negative feelings evoked by the experience of delivering care (Storey and Holti 2013).
The major focus should be made on the improvement of the system performance. This will in turn address system issue and initiate innovative structures and procedures. The model should find new ways to arbitrate casually in pattern of thinking and acting. It is imperative to converse a clear sense of purpose and contribution. The major objective of a leadership framework is to define the direction for NHS. The requirements to focus on the safety of patients help to shape the enhancement of health services that are present in the leadership framework. The NHS will require to accentuate diverse newly prioritized employee behaviors. This in turn indicates that there will be an obligation for diverse priorities in behaviors of leadership (Ellis and Abbott 2014). The new leadership model will consists of a prominent framework that is termed as the customer service-profit chain framework that illustrates relationships between customer faithfulness, employee satisfaction as well as productivity. This framework is imperative because in NHS, both profit and productivity takes place from customer loyalty. The service values that are provided to the customers leads to satisfaction. Under this framework, the leaders require to enhance and maintain a culture that is mostly focused on service to customers and workers. The leaders who spend time with the customers and workers are termed as high engagement leaders. They also illustrate real care as well as apprehension for workers by proactively identifying them. The role of a leader is to develop a positive service climate (Glassman and Hadad 2013).
While developing a good leadership model, it is also imperative to understand a broader environment such as policy frameworks that involves the need to work in direct collaboration with other firms. Given the intricacy and frequent change in systems of NHS organization and responsibility, there are powerful points of view that make sense of what is requisite. A good leadership model requires to be designed in such a way, such that the employees are motivated and works effectually. Deliberation in leadership behavior shows apprehension as well as respect for followers (Elton and Elton 2016). The leadership model will also create a suitable emotional environment that is in tune with a considerate and personal service such as healthcare. The major purpose of building a service climate is to associate leadership with the customer and beyond that with the eventual purpose of the organization, whether that be profit or impact of public service. A service-oriented leadership is required to incorporate in the new leadership model because this leadership leads to a good Human Resource Management practice. Service-oriented leadership is mostly formed due to service climate rather than wide-ranging leadership. However, several researchers have recognized the fact that leaders who occupy instantaneous supervisory roles are critical (Akhtar et al. 2016).
The emphasis on the role of leadership is likely to lead to an emotional environment in NHS. This builds on widespread work in the area of ‘organizational citizenship behavior’. OCB is described as a multi-dimensional assemble that comprises ideas of self-sacrifice, fulfillment and the exercise of carefulness. The new leadership model should incorporated in such a way that it encourages high involvement of employees that allows autonomy within a framework of values and objectives to meet user requirements. The notion of employee engagement will lead to positive attitudes as well as service orientation. It is imperative to provide and carry out a meaningful design for NHS with reinforcing HRM systems that provides relevant employee development. The staff surveys are likely to be analyzed, as it is likely to highlight the good leadership that acts as a general supportive orientation. According to MacArthur et al. (2016), the new leadership model should comprise of a general HR practices as well as service-oriented HR practices as part of the package. Service-oriented HR systems require to be placed in order to strengthen the required behaviors. It is also required to manage and enhance performance rather than simply reporting it. The leadership framework focuses on the measurement and improvement of service performance that draws on a broad range of data and perspectives. Unlike transactional leadership model, the new leadership model should focus on the importance of employees and act in response to their voice (Jones, Dovidio and Vietze 2014).
Several senior leaders require to draw on confirmation and knowledge of national and international developments. According to Moore (2016), NHS should initiate transformational leadership that highlights that goal can be accomplished productively through the collaboration of leader and followers. Since, leaders share a friendly relation with his assistants, this type of leadership is more constant as compared to others. It is considered that the component of inspirational leadership mostly captures the idea of transformational leadership. This idea is particularly change-focused. It holds forth the notion of ordinary individuals accomplishing unusual things through the persuasion of the leader. The transformational leadership also serves to develop the motivation, morale as well as job performance of followers via several mechanisms. This leadership style encompasses several diverse aspects that stresses on intrinsic motivation and positive development of followers. It also helps to increase awareness of moral standards and reflects imperative priorities. Both cooperation and harmony are encouraged with the help of transformational leadership theory. The challenges that are faced by NHS can be mostly eradicated with the help of transformational leadership model (Vaismoradi et al. 2016). In other words, the commitment to galvanize innovation acts as the greatest challenge to NHS.
Another major component that is required to form the new leadership model for NHS should also address system issues and pursue innovation. This component also focuses attention on the role by leadership to bring about innovation. In the present context of NHS there are at least three sorts of innovation that are decisive. Leadership that leads to successful innovation involves the exercise of political astuteness that develops alignment. Studies related to health care innovation reveal a requirement for an effectual coalition between clinicians as well as administrative managers. The model should mostly focus on the learning of new behaviors. This component most focus on the way that leadership is required to temper revelation as well as encouragement of a clear objective with a spirit of investigation (Echevarria, Patterson and Krouse 2016). It also helps to recognize new ways of working appropriate as well as changing state of affairs. There has been raising interest in the notion of servant leadership and truthfulness as decisive dimension of leadership along with distributed leadership. The practice of service and development requires to be enacted and encouraged along with compelling cases for change and careful constructed policies.
The new leaders require to have technical competence in order to win trust of the followers. As a result, they are required to have understanding about the organization and its strategies. The leaders also require to have interpersonal skills that are imperative. In other words, the leaders require to understand the requirements and emotion of followers. The essence of effective leadership in a healthcare organization helps to understand the meaning of events. They also help their associates to become successful in the future. A sense of collective identity requires to be created that makes sure that individuals are clear about their roles and responsibilities. The organization provides a strong support for transformational leadership theory whereas; it requires to alter the transactional leadership theory that was followed. Transformational leadership led to positive outcome that led to welfare of staff and positive nursing outcomes (Avolio et al. 2016).
It can be concluded that leadership in NHS requires to be steady in terms of leadership styles as well as behaviors. This will in turn help to develop shared leadership across the organization. It helps to embody the vision and values of the organization that makes sure shared and reliable approaches to performance management. The new leadership model should incorporate those leaders who will have high level of energy as well as stress tolerance. In other words, these leaders require to work effectually over longer periods of time. Such leaders are less impacted by conflicts, events as well as crisis that in turn help to maintain equilibrium as compared to others. The new leaders also require to have emotional maturity and aptitude in the sense that they are less prone to irritability as well as angry outbreaks. NHS should focus on the role of authentic leadership. It should emphasize on the aspect of leader legitimacy which can be developed through the process of building an honest and sincere relationship with the other employees and staff members, by giving due importance to their contributions and behaving transparently and ethically. The trust formed in the process, thus leads to engagement and improved team and individual performance. Thus, research evidence clearly suggests the importance of transformational and authentic leadership in bringing out quality service in health care organizations.
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