As discussed by Arnett (2012), adolescent is a critical time when many changes take place that involve biological, cognitive and social development. Most prevalent problems observed in the adolescent is psychological problem such as inferiority complex which gives rise to the conflict that in turn make the majority of the adolescents socially distant since adolescent is a very sensitize stage of development which shapes an individual as an adult, any minor inconvenience affects the development of adolescent well-being which further affect quality of life.
This topic of inferiority complex and associated conflict catches the focus since a majority of the adolescent suffering from the inferiority complex due to the peer pressures, influence technological as well as the poor parental practice which affected their psychological development. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the reason behind inferiority complex of adolescent and the associated conflict with the assistance of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. This paper will illustrate the details of research articles in order to provide an empirical literature review in the following paragraphs.
In the study, Jones et al. (2014), Erikson contended that during the psychosocial development an individual goes through different stages of changes which shape them as an adult. The author suggested that out of eight stages, the fifth stage of the psychosocial development is the stage where individuals meet identity crisis due to the inferiority complex that leads to the conflict in the family.
The authors conducted research on the college students who were from the department of psychology, sociology and human development and provided a questionnaire to identify the reason behind the inferiority complex that gives rise to the conflict. The researchers used different assessment tool in order to assess the role of friendship and peer influence in giving rise to the identity crisis followed by frequent conflict and social m isolation. The study suggested that two friendship characters were directly related to the identity status development.
The supportive friendship or positive peer influence reduces the possibility of developing conflict in adolescents; however, negative peer influence gives rise to the inferiority complex and a sense of not feeling good about themselves. Consequently, the sense of not feeling good enough or inferior gives rise to conflict not only within friendship but also with family members. It also implants trust issues within the adolescent as well as compelled them to be socially distant.
It diminished the stability of the relationship with the family members due to sudden aggression and violence. Therefore, in order to reduce the inferiority complex positive peer influence, supportive friendship, supportive parental practice help in developing the identity, resolve conflict with family member and friends and it helped to develop the trust within the relationship which is a root of every relationship.
Duarte, Pinto-Gouveia, and Stubbs (2015) stated a similar kind of opinion regarding the inferiority complex. Peers have a significant effect on the adolescent which shape their identity as an adult and amend their personal values and beliefs. The authors stated that bullying by peers has a significant effect on both body imaging and disorder eating. The researchers conducted randomized trial control on 290 adolescent girls and involve them in assessments in order to identify the reason behind inferiority complex and the possibility of involving in the conflict with peers and family members.
The researchers found out that bullying includes ridiculing someone by calling them with different names, physically abused is another common experience, experienced by the adolescent. Consequently, it leads to the victimizations and possibility of conflict with peers and family members. The study suggested that the inferiority complex reduces self-esteem as an adolescent, give rise to psychological disorders such as depression anxiety.
Another study by Curtis (2015), the adolescent is a distinct phase where they frequently face inferiority complex which further gives rise to the conflict with family members, peers and other members of the community. The author stated that social aspect is the key factors that give rise to the inferiority complex and that further induce conflict. Authors stated that in few cases the inferiority complex generally developed due to the elder siblings and poor parental practice. Therefore, it will also give rise to the emotional conflict with the parents and, affected personal values, beliefs and personal identity. It was frequently observed that usually adolescent become socially distant, consume alcohol, cigarettes.
The authors conducted a review on the adolescent by collecting information from the different primary study. The author suggested that although parental practice plays a crucial role in giving rise to the inferiority complex as well as proper parental practice can reduce the inferiority complex. Like the previous author, this author also agreed that peers play a massive role in giving rise to the inferiority complex, role confusions, especially peer from different gender. The adolescent has a hard time believing in themselves and their role in the society, accepting their imperfection which further makes them being socially distant. Therefore, supporting peers reduce the prevalence of the inferiority complex and associated conflict.
On the other hand, another study by Berros et al. (2018), argued that the Smartphone is also a crucial factor behind development of the inferiority complex in adolescent and associated conflict. The authors suggested that the use of a smart phone in the adolescent in the era of modern technology is another reason behind inferiority complex that gives rise to the conflict of opinion with parents and peers. The authors conducted a case-control study for the evaluating effect of the Smartphone in giving rise to the inferiority complex.
Moreover, the authors suggested that the smart phone helps them to connect with other peers all-around the world. Therefore, the adolescent who makes their false image in the social media induce inferiority complex to the other adolescent. In order to have the life they portray, the majority of the adolescent involved in the conflict with the family members and expressing anger, aggression, and violence. Sometimes it also leads to self-harm.
Another study by Deb and Carri (2018), suggested showed a different perspective of the peer influence in giving rise to the inferiority complex. The authors showed that the inferiority complex produced in the adolescent due to academic performance in the university. The authors also suggested that during comparison with the peers regarding academic performance or compared by teachers has an adverse effect on the personal values of the adolescent. The parental practice also comes into the play for giving rise to the inferiority complex and the possibility of involving in the conflict.
The researchers conducted the study on the basis of the academic performance of 160 university students. The result suggested that the academic performance can give rise to inferiority complex and they tend to feel low about them, they have a tendency to self-harm and giving rise to the psychological disorders. Therefore, in order to reduce the prevalence of inferiority complex, comparison with peers should be reduced.
Thus, from the Erikson's theory of psychosocial development it can be concluded that the adolescent is the sensitive developmental phase of the individual which shape them as an adult to live a quality life. The majority of the others identified the peer influence and friendship as a key factor for an inferiority complex. The authors also highlighted the role of parental practice and hostile parental relationship as well as elder siblings as the reason of inferiority complex. In order to resolve the issues related to the inferiority complex, the supporting peers as well as quality friendship, accurate parental practice, excellent parent children relationship and excellent teaching skills are required which also reduce the conflict and tendency of becoming socially distance.
Arnett, J. J. (2012). Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood, Books a la Carte Edition. Prentice Hall. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.in/books?id=wilBDwAAQBAJ&dq=Adolescence+and+Emerging+Adulthood,+Books+a+la+Carte+Edition+(5th+Edition)+Loose+Leaf+%E2%80%93+July+2+2012+by+Jeffrey+Jensen+Arnett+(Author)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi1z4XbjavfAhVLKo8KHWkRBxcQ6AEILzAB
Berros, P., Armstrong, B. K., Foti, P., & Mancini, R. (2018). Cosmetic Adolescent Filler: An Innovative Treatment of the “Selfie” Complex. Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 34(4), 366-368. Retrieved from : https://journals.lww.com/op-rs/Abstract/2018/07000/Cosmetic_Adolescent_Filler___An_Innovative.13.aspx
Curtis, A. C. (2015). Defining adolescence. Journal of Adolescent and Family Health, 7(2), 2.
Deb, T., & Carri, R. G. (2018). A Study on Academic Achievement in Relation to Emotional Stability and Adjustment among Adolescents of Assam. research journal of social sciences, 9(6). Retrieved from: https://www.aensi.in/assets/uploads/doc/81d32-16-24.14091.pdf
Duarte, C., Pinto-Gouveia, J., & Stubbs, R. J. (2017). The prospective associations between bullying experiences, body image shame and disordered eating in a sample of adolescent girls. Personality and Individual Differences, 116, 319-325. Retrieved from: https://estudogeral.sib.uc.pt/bitstream/10316/47382/1/PAID-D-16-01821CD.pdf