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Raphael's Misuse of Power and Reward Tactics

Question:

Discuss about the Psychological Empowerment and Traditionality.

The case study shows that Raphael uses a combination of legitimate political behaviour and reward power. Raphael got promoted as the boss of Barry and thought it legitimate to take credit for the performances of the later. He started taking credit for their performances because thought as a superior he could take credit of their efficiency. Northouse (2015), states that superiors in the workplaces use their power and influence to take credit for their followers’ performances. They misuse their power to suppress their legitimate ownership of performances, which actually belongs to their subordinates. As far as Raphael is concerned, he usurps the credit of his followers to gain appraisal and promotions in the eyes of the apex management. Johnson (2017) points out that leaders should use their powers and influence to bring about career development of both their subordinates and themselves. One can point that the case study bears no evidence of Raphael taking initiatives to empower his subordinates or providing them with training. However, he usurps their performances to gain his own promotions and career development. Thus, one can point that Raphael uses rewards power to gain higher organisational position (Gerber et al. 2016). This gaining of promotions would in turn give him power to usurp the performances of his subordinates and exploit them. Thus, it can be inferred that Raphael uses legitimate and rewards power while leading his subordinates.

Barry should complain about the misuse of power by Raphael and usurping his performances to gain his own promotions. He should complain to his skill level manager and his senior bosses about this illegitimate use of power by Raphael so that he could highlight his own performances before the higher management. The top management would be aware of the performances of Barry which would earn him the due promotions and recognition for his performances. This would also reveal legitimate but unethical actions of Raphael, which would allow the higher authorities to take steps against him.  

Barry should complain to his skip level manager and to the higher authorities against the misuse of power and position by Raphael. He should approach the skip level manager and the senior managers confidentially and ensure that they confide with him so as not to reveal his identity to Raphael. Barry must substantiate his claim of high performance worth of recognition by facts and statistics proving his high level of performances. These figures and facts would help him to prove his efficiency more, strongly which would ensure him the due recognition for his performances.

Strategies for Barry to Highlight His Own High Performance

Barry could use politicking as a power tactic to highlight his own performances before the apex management and his skip level boss. There are five politicking strategies, which Barry can consider to prevent Raphael from usurping his due credits for performances. The first approach is developing amicable and friendly image, the second approach is to appear indispensible while the third approach consist of developing coalitions.  The fourth approach is to assert his own claim to his performance and lastly, gain support from higher authorities. It appears that Barry had shared great understanding with Raphael in the past but could not approach him now due to his higher position of the latter. Thus, the tactic of building relationship with Raphael was not feasible. The second approach is to appear indispensible before the management. The case study shows that Barry was an efficient employee and hence he can use the high performance of his to appear indispensible before his employer. The third approach consists of making coalition with fellow employees, which may attract Raphael’s attention. Hence, this approach is not feasible. The fourth approach, which Barry can use to highlight his own high performance before the management, is asserting his performances using statistics and performance related figures. It is clear that Barry can use this approach using his high performances. The fifth approach, which Barry can take, is to gain support of his skip level boss and senior managers. It can be pointed out that Barry can use this tactic since he is efficient. The above discussion shows that Barry can use three power tactics to highlight his own high performance before the management to gain promotions and appraisals. They are, proving himself indispensible, asserting his status of being an efficient employee and gaining support of higher authorities.

Whining and complaining definitely leads to diminishing of power and influence within an organisation. Liden eta l. (2016) point out that efficient and senior employees use their influence and leadership qualities to deal with conflicting situations with their bosses.  The given case study shows that Raphael used to usurp the performances of Barry and take its credit to gain recognition before the senior management. Here if Barry complains to the higher authority against Raphael, they may look at this action as a sign of insecurity and lack of authority.

Barry can avoid being a whiner or a complainer by taking certain alternative steps. First, he can first speak to Raphael and point it out to him that it is unethical to take credit of others’ performances. He can also inform Raphael that the usurping action of his is affecting the motivation level negatively. If Raphael uses his power to influence him, the second approach Barry can take is inform the skip level manager about the unethical practices followed by Raphael. He can substantiate his claim against Raphael by using statistics and figures proving his high level of efficiency. This would allow the management to understand that is claims are legitimate and ethical. Thus reporting to the upper level management about the unethical actions of Raphael and supporting his claims using statistics would make the concern of Barry legitimate and he would not appear to be a whiner.

Avoiding Whining and Complaining


Barry should start looking for a new job and simultaneously seek management support to prevent Raphael from taking credit for his performances. He should first confront Raphael and point it out to him that he is being unethical by taking credit of others’ performances. If Raphael continues exploiting him, she should raise it with the skip level managers and the apex management. He should substantiate his claims with statistics and figures highlighting his performances. He should also highlight that Raphael’s unethically taking advantage of the performances of his subordinates is affecting their motivation to perform highly. If discussing with both Raphael and the top management fail, Barry should look for a new job.

Barry should look out for a new job if the discussions with Raphael and the senior manager prove be unsuccessful. This is because Raphael took credit of Barry’s efficiency and did not highlight it before the apex management. This unethical action of Raphael is liable to prevent Barry from availing promotions and recognitions for his performances. This in turn would lead to hampering his career growth. He should consider switching job and take up employment with another employer. However, if the discussions with Raphael and the top management prove to be successful, Barry should not change his job and continue working in the company (Robbins et al. 2017).

Barry should use situational leadership theory by Hersey and Blanchard, a type of contingency leadership theory to lead his new team of subordinates. The situational leadership theory recognises four categories of subordinates and points out leadership styles, which leaders can use to lead these four categories of subordinates. The first category consists of employees having lower level of skills and motivation. The leaders and the departmental heads using the telling style of leadership by giving them clear directions and supervising their performances on daily basis. The second category of team members comprises of members having high degree of motivation but low degree of knowledge. The leaders while supervising these individuals use selling style of leadership, which involves giving clear direction and measuring performances on regular basis. However, since the subordinates are motivated, the leaders allow them to participate more than the first group. This ensures that these workers acquire more knowledge and skill by participating in the team actions. The third group of subordinates consist of workers who have great knowledge, skill and experience but lack motivation.

Barry's Alternative Steps


According to Li et al.(2015)., empowerment of employees boosts their motivation level. Thus, it can be pointed out in other words lack of empowerment results in lack of motivation to perform in spite of skills and years of experience. The leaders use participating leadership style to encourage the employees to participate in the team meetings. This category of employees is usually senior employees. These experienced employees usually contribute greatly to the team strategies using their years of knowledge, skills and experiences. The last group of employees consists of senior and the highly performing employees who have both high degree of knowledge and motivation. This group of employees are designated with important positions and vested with leadership responsibilities. The above discussion shows that there situational leadership theory is appropriate because recognises the four types of followers in a team and assigns four different leadership styles to lead these followers (Northouse 2015).

Barry can use situational leadership style to lead his new team. A new team consists of team members of four categories and Barry can deal with them using four different leadership styles. For example, he can direct and use telling style for inexperienced team members lacking motivation. Again, he can delegate substantial powers upon senior employees in the new team who have motivation and years of skills and knowledge. This would enable him to lead the new team by catering to the leadership needs of every member (Thompson and Glasø 2015).

Barry can use situational leadership style to lead and manage his new team by catering to the needs of every member. He can use telling style to lead the inexperienced junior members lacking motivation. He should train them to increase their knowledge and motivation level. He should supervise the performances on regular basis and mentor them to improve the capabilities (Fong and Snape 2015).

Barry should manage the second group of employees having minimum experience but high motivation using the selling leadership style. He should assign them work and clear directions. He should supervise their performances and provide them with training o imprive their skills.

The third group of employees consists of employees having high degree of skills and knowledge but low motivation. Barry should manage them by allowing them to participate in the team meetings. This would enhance their self esteem and sense of responsibility. It will increase their motivation and they would willingly contribute towards achievement of the team targets. These senior employees can also help Barry by mentoring and coaching the first two categories of employees (Humborstad and Kuvaas 2013). They can share the leadership responsibilities of Barry, which would ultimately contribute operation of the team more efficient.

Switching Job or Staying


Barry can manage the fourth category of subordinates having both experience and motivation by delegating them important decision-making positions in the team or the department. These employees can motivate the other categories of employees by their high level of performances (Salge, Glackin and Polani 2014).

Barry in order to manage these four categories of employees should ensure coordination and cooperation among the junior and the senior employees. He should provide training to the first two categories of employees to increase their motivation and competency level (Zhang et al. 2014). Similarly, the other two group of employees should be give strategic position in the team and should be encouraged to participate in the team meetings. This would create job satisfaction and self-esteem in them and they would contribute more proactively towards team performances. Barry should manage these four categories of employees to retain them and ensure that they improve their competencies on regular basis (Maruping and Magni 2015). He should also ensure their appraisals and career growth based on their level of performances.

References:

Anra, Y. and Yamin, M., 2017. Relationships between Lecturer Performance, Organizational Culture, Leadership, and Achievement Motivation. ???????, 11(2 (eng)).

Fong, K.H. and Snape, E., 2015. Empowering Leadership, Psychological Empowerment and Employee Outcomes: Testing a Multi?level Mediating Model. British Journal of Management, 26(1), pp.126-138.

Gerber, N., McDermott, R., Volkamer, M. and Vogt, J., 2016. Understanding Information Security Compliance-Why Goal Setting and Rewards Might be a Bad Idea. In HAISA (pp. 145-155).

Humborstad, S.I.W. and Kuvaas, B., 2013. Mutuality in leader–subordinate empowerment expectation: Its impact on role ambiguity and intrinsic motivation. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(2), pp.363-377.

Johnson, C.E., 2017. Meeting the ethical challenges of leadership: Casting light or shadow. Sage Publications.

Kraczla, M., 2017. PERSONALITY PROFILING ACCORDING TO THE BIG FIVE MODEL BY PT COSTA AND RR MCCRAE: COMPARISON ANALYSIS OF MANAGERS AND SPECIALISTS. Regional Formation and Development Studies, 22(2), pp.77-91.

Li, Y., Wei, F., Ren, S. and Di, Y., 2015. Locus of control, psychological empowerment and intrinsic motivation relation to performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(4), pp.422-438.

Liden, R., Fu, P., Liu, J. and Song, L., 2016. The influence of CEO values and leadership on middle manager exchange behaviors: A longitudinal multilevel examination. Nankai Business Review International, 7(1), pp.2-20.

Maruping, L.M. and Magni, M., 2015. Motivating employees to explore collaboration technology in team contexts. Mis Quarterly, 39(1).

Northouse, P.G., 2015. Leadership: Theory and practice. Sage publications.

Robbins, Judge, Millett and Boyle (2017). Organisational Behaviour, 8th, Robbins, Stephen et al | Buy Online at Pearson. [online] Pearson.com.au. Available at: https://www.pearson.com.au/products/O-R-Robbins-Judge-Millett-Boyle/O-R-Robbins-Stephen-et-al/Organisational-Behaviour/9781488609329?R=9781488609329 [Accessed 10 Oct. 2017].

Salge, C., Glackin, C. and Polani, D., 2014. Changing the environment based on empowerment as intrinsic motivation. Entropy, 16(5), pp.2789-2819.

Salleh, S.M., Zahari, A.S.M., Said, N.S.M. and Ali, S.R.O., 2016. The Influence of Work Motivation on Organizational Commitment in the Workplace. J. Appl. Environ. Biol. Sci, 6(5S), pp.139-143.

Shamim, S., Cang, S. and Yu, H., 2017. Impact of knowledge oriented leadership on knowledge management behaviour through employee work attitudes. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, pp.1-31.

Thompson, G. and Glasø, L., 2015. Situational leadership theory: a test from three perspectives. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 36(5), pp.527-544.

Zhang, A.Y., Song, L.J., Tsui, A.S. and Fu, P.P., 2014. Employee responses to employment?relationship practices: The role of psychological empowerment and traditionality. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(6), pp.809-830.

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