Overview of the Concepts Surveyed
In most of the organizations nowadays, it has been observed that there is a decrease in the productivity level. The productivity level has been low, the turnovers for the labors has been observed to be quite high and the employees are not much satisfied with their jobs. Including issues like these, there might be some other issues that affect or motivate the employees to work in their organizations and produce the best work that they can. Thus, keeping this in mind, it was important for the researcher to plan a research to evaluate the factors that can affect the employee performance in an organization and that will in turn affect the productivity of the organization (Hair Jr et al., 2015).
This research is mainly aimed at evaluating critically the factors of the organization that can affect the performance that the employees provide in the organization. Thus, in order to conduct this research, a survey will be conducted in the mid-level organizations of the country. There are both part time and full time employees working for these companies and they all will be targeted to participate in the research.
The personalities of different employees are different. These differences in the characteristics makes the employees react differently with regard to the pressures that are existent in the organizations, both internal and external pressures. The environment of the workplace of the employees are greatly influencing for the performance and the mental framework of the employees. This is important as most of the employees spend almost 50 percent of their time awake in their workplace (Chadwick, Super & Kwon, 2015). This impact in the mental condition of the employees are greatly responsible in affecting their performance. This in turn affects the performance of the organizations.
For all these stated reasons, it is important for an organization to identify the reasons that are responsible in affecting the employee performances at their workplaces so that they can be corrected in order to improve their performances (Cording et al., 2014). The factors that are expected to affect the performance of the employees in their workplaces are discussed in the following paragraphs.
As already discussed, the personalities of different employees are different. Due to this difference in the personalities, the thoughts and views of the employees might be different from each other. This difference in the views and personalities might be creating a problem between the employees resulting in a fight or distrust among them. There exists a distrust between the employees on the basis of the characters or the motives of the employees. This personality or ego clashes is one of the reasons that are responsible for the performance of the employees in the organizations (Al Horr et al., 2016).
The companies nowadays have a lot of demands from their employees. These demands result in strict deadlines. There are a lot of employees in each organization. Some can take up the pressure and work harder under it. Some others cannot succumb to this high pressure and result in very bad performance. Hence, it can be said that in an environment that is aggressive and in which the stress levels of the employees are high, the performance of the employees is hampered. This will also be responsible in turn for the performance of the organization to be low (Jayaweera, 2015).
The workloads of the organizations are not the same at all the time. Sometimes the companies have a very high pressure of the work and in some other times, the pressure is low. When the workload of the employees increases at an alarmingly high rate, they have to work overtime in order to complete the work. This at times result in an unwillingness to work and as a result quality of the work is compromised. This factor also affects their health and can demoralize them. This can also be a cause of low performance of the organizations (Ertas, 2015).
In order to make the employees of the organizations perform properly and efficiently, the organizations must be providing their employees with adequate time and resources so that they do not get stuck at the middle of the work they are performing. Availability of the necessary resources will be helping the employees in performing to the best of their ability and provide good results. This might also be helpful in making the employees proud of what they have achieved. When the employees are able to perform properly, the company will also be benefitted and will have better productivity (Leftheriotis & Giannakos, 2014).
The motivation of the supervisor of an organization for its subordinates is highly important. The motivation of the supervisor helps the employees to increase their confidence and enthusiasm for the work. Thus, the supervisor of the company must have the motivational attitude towards its subordinates. If this attitude is not there in the supervisors and the supervisor shows a behavior which is punitive and aggressive, harassment increases in the workplace. This results in poor employee performance and in turn poor performance of the organization (Anitha, 2014).
Each of the workers in an organization are entitled for a particular domain. Each of the employees have their own particular domain in which they are quite comfortable to perform. If the employees are forced to work in a domain which they are not entitled to and in which they are not comfortable in working, the performance of the employee will not be up to the mark. Now, if multiple employees are forced to work in a domain in which they are not comfortable to work, the performance will hamper. Failure of multiple employees in working according to their expectations will result in the poor performance of the organizations (Paillé et al., 2014).
It is important for the employees of the organization to have clarity among themselves with respect to their roles and responsibilities in their workplaces. If this is not the case, then the time when something good happens, each and every employee wants to take credit for the work and this results in chaos. On the other hand, the time when something goes wrong, none of the employees are ready to accept their mistakes and takes responsibility. This will again be a cause of chaos in the organization which is supposed to lower the performance of the organizations (Dane & Brummel, 2014).
It is important to share the necessary information about the companies with the employees. If this is not done, the employees will assume stories on their own and will result in the spread of rumors. Rumors can be extremely offensive that will be able to hurt the goodwill and the image of the organization. Rumors can also be affective in destroying the trust in the management. All these will be highly responsible in lowering the performance of the companies. From various researches, it has been observed that gossips are highly effective in affecting the organization performance creating a loss in the company. This also hinders the performance of the employees (Albrecht et al., 2015).
The employees should be paired with the right partner so that they can perform well. If one of the partners are highly efficient and the other one is not at all efficient in the particular project they are assigned to, then one person will have to work on the two people work. This will put tremendous pressure on the efficient partner and thus the work quality will be compromised, affecting the performance of the company in turn. The technologies used by the companies will also have to be updated so that they can compete with the other companies belonging to the same industries. If the organizations do not adopt the latest technologies, they will fall back and the performances will be affected (Wilson & Sharples, 2015).
Another important factor that will be responsible for affecting the performance of the employees in an organization is the bullying or harassment of the employees in the organizations. The bosses or the colleagues of the employees threaten other employees at times for no such reasons (Alt?nda? & Köseda??, 2015). They often pass offensive comments about employees they do not prefer to others. This also hinders the environment of the workplace and the performance of the employees in the organization. Discrimination between the employees can also be a factor that can affect the performance of the company negatively (Mills, 2017). Employee discrimination directly affects the behavior of the employees which is major factor for the poor job performance of the employees. Grievances among the employees is also common for this reason. All these factors in totality will affect the performance of the employees resulting in low business performance. It is also important to have appraisals at proper and regular intervals and amounts. If a good performer is under rated, this might hinder his confidence and over rating a poor performer may give rise to egoism. These must be avoided in order to develop the performance of the organizations (Knies et al., 2015).
Overview of Questions
In order to conduct this study on the company performance and identifying and evaluating the factors that can hinder the performance, a primary research has been conducted. To conduct a primary research, at first a questionnaire is prepared. The questionnaire contains various questions relating to the topic of research that will be asked to the selected employees from various companies of the United States. Based on the four research questions, the questionnaire is prepared. Considering each of the research questions, 4 – 5 questions have been framed that will help in understand the research questions and make the necessary decisions with the help of appropriate statistical analysis. The questionnaire developed thus is appropriate for the proposed sample that has been considered for the study.
Writing the Questions
The research questions of the study is concerned with evaluating impact of different factors on performance of the employees. The specific factors considered are system and structure of employees, remuneration, training program and communication channel. For each of these factors specific questions are designed to have an overall idea of these factors and its impact on workers’ performance. Before discussing specific factors some common question relating to demographics like age, sex, marital status, education and work experiences are considered. The demographic variables are important to get an overview about participants of the survey. Management plays a crucial role in performance of the employees. The basic aspects related to managements are work environment, motivation to the workers and access to adequate resources. Interruption in any of these factors hinder workers’ performance. Remuneration is the return that workers receive in return of their work effort. Higher remuneration encourages workers to put their best effort. Remunerations are considered in form of monthly salaries, performance bonus and other facilities that the company might provide. Nature of training program, duration of training, participation of employees in training and incentives associated with training program are other influential factor for performance. Channel of communication to the management, process of addressing grievances of existing workers are other factors affecting performance and productivity of workers.
In order to conduct the pilot survey successfully maximum of 30 responses are needed. The respondents are to be selected from different sectors to avoid the selection bias. The selected respondent should provide the correct and needful information for the survey. In designing the questionnaire some ethical aspects like confidentiality of the responses obtained, use of simple language in designing the questionnaire and others are taken into consideration. The ethical aspects are discussed in detail in the following section.
The questionnaire is attached in the following table:
This section consists of questions regarding basic demographic characteristics.
Q.1 Gender ? Male ? Female
Q.2 Marital Status ?Single ? Married
Q.3 Age ? 20-30 ?30-40 ?40-50 ?50 and above
Q.4 Education ? Bachelor degree ?Master Degree ?PHD
Do you have any special technical skill? ? Yes ? No
If yes, then what is it _______________________
Q.5 Number of years working in the company ? <1 year ? < 1-3 years ? 3-5 years ? 5 years and more
The next section of the questionnaire consists of questions relating to four main factors affecting employees’ performance.
1 represents Strongly Agree, 2 represents Agree, 3 represents Neutral, 4 represents Disagree, 5 represents Strongly Disagree.
Effect of management system and structure on employees’ performance
Q.1 The management is concerned about need of the employees.
?1 ?2 ?3 ?4 ?5
Q.2 The Company offers a healthy and safety work environment
?1 ?2 ?3 ?4 ?5
Q.3 Does the management provides motivational sessions to encourages employees
Q.4 The management provides adequate resources to its employees for securing good performance
?1 ?2 ?3 ?4 ?5
Effect of remuneration on performance of employees’
Q.1 The Company provides adequate remuneration to the employees.
? 1 ?2 ?3 ?4 ?5
Q.2 Salary you receive per month
? USD 5000 ? USD 5000-10000 ?USD 10000-15000 ?USD 15000-20000 ?USD20000 and above
Q.3 Does the company offer performance bonus
? Yes ?No
If yes then briefly describe the schemes___________________________
Q.4 Does the company offer any other facilities in addition to monthly salary?
? Yes ? No
If yes, then what are they ____________________________________________
Effect of training on employees’ performance
Q.1 Does the company arranges periodical training program?
? Yes ? No
If yes, then what type of training programs does the company offer?
? Technical ? Workplace Health and safety Training ? Skill development ? others
Q.2 Duration of the training program
?3-5 days ? 1 week ? more than 1 week
Q.3 The training programs are helpful in enhancing performance in the workplace
?1 ?2 ?3 ?4 ?5
Q.4 The Company ensures participation of every employees in different training program.
?1 ?2 ?3 ?4 ?5
Q.5 Does the company provides any incentive to participate in training program?
? Yes ?No
If yes, then mention the form of incentive_______________________________
Effect of communication channel on performance of the employees
Q.1 There is proper channel of lodging complaint about any form of discontent among employees
?1 ?2 ?3 ?4 ?5
Q.2 The management addresses complaints lodge by the workers
?1 ?2 ?3 ?4 ?5
Q.3 Time taken by the management to address issues raised by employees
?one week ?one month ?more than one month
Q.4 Does there exist any discrimination in addressing the complaints?
If Yes, then what kind of discrimination_____________________________________
Analysis of Data
On the basis of the data collected from the questionnaire, analysis will be performed. Analysis can be performed in both qualitative and quantitative methods as the questionnaire contains questions which are both open ended and closed ended questions. A sample of 300 employees will be selected to conduct the survey. The responses of the closed ended questions will be analyzed with the help of appropriate statistical techniques. Thus the analysis will be quantitative. On the other hand, the open ended questions will be discussed with support to the related literatures and previously established information and thus the analysis will be qualitative.
A sample of 300 employees will be sufficient to understand the problem that has been considered for this research. The factors that affect the employee productivity will be understood clearly with the sample of 300 employees working for the companies in the United States.
At the time of conducting a research with the help of a questionnaire, some ethics needs to be followed. These ethics are discussed in the following paragraphs.
The questionnaires that are made for the purpose of the research needs to be clear and to the point. The questions included in the questionnaire must not be offensive and hypothetical. The questions should be framed such that the participants can share their point of view (Resnik, 2015).
The participants of a research must be well informed about the research before answering the questionnaire. The respondents must not be forced or tricked to participate in the research. The explanation about the research must be provided in an easy language so that it is easily understood by the participants. The willingness of the respondents must be honored. The participants will also be allowed to ask any questions about the study at any point of time and if a participant is willing to withdraw from the study, he or she must not be withheld and allowed to withdraw (Iphofen, 2017).
The participants must be assured that the information shared by them is secure. Any information shared by the participants must be kept highly confidential and will not be accessed by anyone other than the persons who will be directly related to the research. The release of the names, contact information or any identifying factor of the participants must not be released by the researchers under any circumstances (Resnik, 2015).
The literature review in this paper gives an overview of the concepts that are important for this topic. All the concepts described in the literature are theoretically discussed. Based on these concepts and the research questions questionnaire has been prepared to conduct the data analysis. In this case, the data collected is primary and thus the research results will be practical. This will be either supporting the discussed literature or will be violating it. Thus, the literature is the theoretical discussion of the concepts related to the topic and the survey will be able to discuss the concepts practically.
Al Horr, Y., Arif, M., Kaushik, A., Mazroei, A., Katafygiotou, M., & Elsarrag, E. (2016). Occupant productivity and office indoor environment quality: A review of the literature. Building and Environment, 105, 369-389.
Albrecht, S. L., Bakker, A. B., Gruman, J. A., Macey, W. H., & Saks, A. M. (2015). Employee engagement, human resource management practices and competitive advantage: An integrated approach. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 2(1), 7-35.
Alt?nda?, E., & Köseda??, Y. (2015). The relationship between emotional intelligence of managers, innovative corporate culture and employee performance. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 210, 270-282.
Anitha, J. (2014). Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance. International journal of productivity and performance management, 63(3), 308.
Chadwick, C., Super, J. F., & Kwon, K. (2015). Resource orchestration in practice: CEO emphasis on SHRM, commitment?based HR systems, and firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 36(3), 360-376.
Cording, M., Harrison, J. S., Hoskisson, R. E., & Jonsen, K. (2014). Walking the talk: A multistakeholder exploration of organizational authenticity, employee productivity, and post-merger performance. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 28(1), 38-56.
Dane, E., & Brummel, B. J. (2014). Examining workplace mindfulness and its relations to job performance and turnover intention. Human Relations, 67(1), 105-128.
Ertas, N. (2015). Turnover intentions and work motivations of millennial employees in federal service. Public Personnel Management, 44(3), 401-423.
Hair Jr, J. F., Wolfinbarger, M., Money, A. H., Samouel, P., & Page, M. J. (2015). Essentials of business research methods. Routledge.
Iphofen, R. (Ed.). (2017). Finding Common Ground-Consensus in Research Ethics Across the Social Sciences(Vol. 1). Emerald Group Publishing.
Jayaweera, T. (2015). Impact of work environmental factors on job performance, mediating role of work motivation: A study of hotel sector in England. International journal of business and management, 10(3), 271.
Knies, E., Boselie, P., Gould-Williams, J., & Vandenabeele, W. (2015). Special issue of International Journal of Human Resource Management: Strategic human resource management and public sector performance.
Leftheriotis, I., & Giannakos, M. N. (2014). Using social media for work: Losing your time or improving your work?. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 134-142.
Mills, A. J. (2017). Studying the Gendering of Organizational Culture over Time: Concerns, Issues, and Strategies?. In Insights and Research on the Study of Gender and Intersectionality in International Airline Cultures (pp. 71-91). Emerald Publishing Limited.
Paillé, P., Chen, Y., Boiral, O., & Jin, J. (2014). The impact of human resource management on environmental performance: An employee-level study. Journal of Business Ethics, 121(3), 451-466.
Resnik, D. B. (2015, December). What is ethics in research & why is it important. In ideas.
Wilson, J. R., & Sharples, S. (Eds.). (2015). Evaluation of human work. CRC press.